Wednesday, July 31, 2019
What do you think with your best friendÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance, personality and the feeling you have they to be your friend? In my opinion, Ã¢â¬Å"FriendÃ¢â¬ is really important for me. I can live without computer and TV but I canÃ¢â¬â¢t live without Ã¢â¬ friendÃ¢â¬ the person who is sharing my mood with me whenever IÃ¢â¬â¢m happy or sad and I found Ã¢â¬Å"herÃ¢â¬ my really best friend who has nice appearance , good personality and IÃ¢â¬â¢m very happy that I can be friend with her. My best friend is Vianney.SheÃ¢â¬â¢s cute, good looking and not talk too much with the person that she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t known very well. When you see her first time you might think sheÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to get along with but actually if you understand her well, you will know that it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like what you see. She has a good smile, big eyes and pretty long hair that will let people want to be friend with her when they see her. In addition, Vianney is a responsible person. She always takes care of her jobs well and finishes the work on time. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s hard working and organized.She can manage the time very well and everything is in her schedule. Moreover, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s reliable sometime IÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk to her some secrets and she can keep the secret very well and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t talk to others. I think she is a really nice friend. What is more, Vianney is a really good friend for me. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s the person who understands me well. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s always beside me when IÃ¢â¬â¢m upset, listen to me and help me every time when I need help. When I have problem she will give me some advices and help me to solve the problem.Even when I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand in the lesson she explained patiently for me to understand every time. I think IÃ¢â¬â¢m really lucky that I have met Vianney and IÃ¢â¬â¢m very happy we are friend and I think we will be friend forever. To summarizes, I think Vianney is a nice person. She has good appearance, personality and IÃ¢â¬â¢m very happy that I can be friend with Vianney who is cute, responsible and always help me in everything. Finally, I think friend is really important for me and I hope we can be friend forever.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Reading Analysis Guide: Trail of Tears Part A The author, Dee Brown, gives a brief description about Andrew JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s policy on Indian removal in order to gain popularity and power. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the cause and effects of Ã¢â¬Å"Indian RemovalÃ¢â¬ during JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, ultimately creating the Ã¢â¬Å"Trail of Tears. Ã¢â¬ As early as the colonial period Indian removal was evident, Brown claims. Indians never really got along with white settlers, and even if they tried to resolve the conflicts, it would fail.Indian Removal calmed down over time but in 1828, Andrew Jackson ran for president and immediately knew he would have to wipe out the frontier states. He made a treaty in which the Indians had to remove themselves from the states and move west toward the Mississippi. On there Ã¢â¬Å"tripÃ¢â¬ to the Mississippi, Indians faced many hardships that included starvation, death, and disease. Part B I feel that all the information given wa s germane and strengthened the chapter as a whole.The strongest points are found when the author talks about the history of Indian Removal. He states that mistreatment of Indians was evident as early as the Colonial Period. I think starting from the historical view of Indian removal made the story flow well and did a good job at catching the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Brown also tells about how the Indians were in America first, and over the years they began ceding their land and adapting to the Ã¢â¬Å"white manÃ¢â¬â¢s way. Ã¢â¬ Part CThe Trial of Tears reminds me of the Taiwan and China during the domination of Chiang Kai-Sheik and Mao Zedong. Chiang Kai-Sheik was apart of the Kuomintang (KMT), while Mao was apart of the Communist Party of China. This can be compared to the Trail of Tears , because neither Chiang nor Mao would accept each other, which reflects the relationship of the Indians and the white settlers in the states. As a result , Chiang moved to Taiwann and declar ed independence from China causing the ROC, while Mao ruled just the mainland of China.Some of the same aspects occurred during this time period as in the Trail of Tears. Chiang are like the Indians, while Mao is like Andrew Jackson (along with the white settlers). Although Chiang and Mao had conflicts, no major violence occurred, however during the Indian Removal period you had the Black Hawk War and rebellions by the Indians. Also, Mao did not force Chiang to move, but Andrew did force the Indians.
Education is the single most important factor in not only an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life and their outcome for success, but also the outcome of future success in America. In order for our country to be successful we must invest in our future generations and the training they will need once they move on to their future endeavors. Although America spends vast amounts of money each year on education, money is not always the answer. We must improve the performance in our classrooms by making sure we have the strongest faculty possible. Teachers being given the luxury of tenure are hurting student performance and the performance of America. Tenure is not only allowing teachers to keep their jobs secure based off experience rather than performance, but also it is this job protection that makes the removal of poorly performing teachers so difficult and costly. In a result, most schools end up retaining their bad teachers. Teachers having tenure is a very controversial issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. There are many pros and cons to this subject, but it is crucial that we have the strongest faculty we can in order to have a bright and prosperous future for this country. TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure is a form of job protection that public school teachers receive after 1-7 years on the job. It was created in the early 1920s in order to protect teachers from losing their jobs to younger less expensive teachers. According to Time U. S. magazine, Ã¢â¬Å"Roughly 2. 3 million public school teachers in the U. S. have tenureÃ¢â¬ (Stephey). With all the budget cuts that have happened, many talented, energetic and young teachers are being fired in order for other teachers to keep their job. TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s job security should be based on performance in the classroom rather than years a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s been teaching. TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure is one of the most controversial issues in education today. Many people argue that it protects teachers from being fired for personal or political reasons, and prevents the firing of experienced teachers to hire less expensive new teachers. Before tenure was in place, teachers would be fired if a new political party took office or even if the principle wanted to make room for a teacher friend. Tenure adds stability for the community around it because teachers with long careers are known and trusted throughout the community. Proponents also say that eliminating teacher tenure would discourage people from entering the teaching profession. Many people would decide to invest their talent in a more securable profession rather than risking their future on what could be a future pink slip. Having less talent in the teaching field would greatly impact education in a negative way. It would reduce innovation in teaching because many teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ lesson plans would become skewed towards the standardized tests in order to keep their jobs. Standardized test should not be the reason a teacher loses his or her job, but no teacher should have the luxury of having guaranteed job security. According to the pro-education reform documentary Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting for Superman,Ã¢â¬ only one out of 1000 teachers is fired for performance-related reasons each year. Teachers with tenure are the older and more experienced teachers. Although they may have experience, their age may be a downfall in their teaching tactics. The older a teacher is, the less energy they have for holding the attention of the class. Especially in the technological age, teachers must be not only energetic and relatable to their students, but they must also be computer savvy. Every classroom now a days has either a computerized white board, projector, or even a class set of laptops. The future of education relies on technology and many teachers that hold tenure have not grown up around such technology. This restricts them on their ability to utilize technology in order to relate to their students. With the high school drop out rate increasing each year, teachers must be well equipped with skills of not only the Internet, but also power points, online lectures, and also online tutoring that all their students may have access to. Society has risen the new generation of students to live off technology. Hardly ever do students look something up in a book rather than resorting to Google to find their answer. In a result, teachers that are younger with less experience in the classroom, tend to have more experience with the technological tactics of learning that many present day students prefer. Relating to the students learning habits is crucial for their future success in higher education. Firing a teacher with tenure is a very long and difficult process. It may take up to a year before the courts become involved before a teacher may lose their tenure. Teacher tenure requires schools to make long-term spending commitments and prevents districts from being fiscally flexible. Teacher employment contracts generally lack provisions for declining enrollment and economic turmoil. As a high school student, I saw many first hand accounts on the effects of tenure. Although it does affect teachers the most, the community around the school may be affected as well. While I was in high school, our school experienced many of our most talented young teachers being Ã¢â¬Å"pink slippedÃ¢â¬ . Many of the teachers being fired were the most respected around the campus, being favored by the student body by the way they could relate, and teach a subject with such interest. The majority of the school was outraged that many of the younger teachers were being fired rather than the uninteresting older teachers that did not get through to their students as well. The issue began to enter the classrooms affecting the learning of the students. The problem resulted in an organized Ã¢â¬Å"walk outÃ¢â¬ were the majority of my school walked out of their classrooms in an attempt to save the jobs of their favorite teachers. Although teachers tenure may create stability in a community, fair job protection, and an attractable job profession, tenure must either be eliminated completely, or much more difficult to acquire. Teachers in the K-12 must be held to the same requirements as a college professor in order to acquire tenure. Acquiring a tenure in college requires not only participation in the classroom for a certain amount of years, but also contributions to their given field and accomplishments they make in their long career. Teachings in the K-12 are usually held to the standard of working for two to seven years and then being rewarded job security. By being able to acquire tenure so easily, the education system as a whole suffers. With less talented teachers having secure jobs, students do not learn as efficiently which contributes to the lack of college degrees in America. Education as a whole is the most important issue for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s success. In education, learning does not start with the student, but instead the tools they are given to succeed. We must either eliminate tenure, or raise the difficulty of acquiring such job security for the betterment of our future leaders.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Performance Measures - Assignment Example spite encouraging a comparison of income generated to assets used, Caplan (2014) argues that this measurement could encourage focus on short-term as opposed to long term financial performance and deferment of asset replacement. The second measure is residual income, RI. RI refers to the operating income earned by an investment center above the minimum desired return on the assets invested (Needles et al., 2014). This is a dollar amount of profit that remains after the subtraction of the targeted income for an investment center. RI is a significant measure because it enhances goal congruence (Jiambalvo, 2011). This follows the fact that RI encourages managers to invest so as to post higher RI values. Of these two performance measurements, RI would be considered as more important. Whereas both measures determine performance, RI incorporates the rate of return that an organization expects from invested capital (Needles et al., 2014). Thus, any investment with a return exceeding the minimum needed rate of return yields a positive RI. As such, RI measures an important aspect of performance, the level of investment, which ROI omits, making it a more important measure of
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Foreign Exchange Market - Assignment Example The parties agree to convert the U.S. currency to the British Pound today (spot transaction date), April 5, 2015 (The Money Converter, 2015). There is a difference between foreign_currency dealers and brokers. The foreign exchange dealer is a person or entity (especially a bank) that buys and sells foreign_currency. People can spot them in supermarkets and grocery stores. The dealer makes a profit by selling the purchased foreign_currency to a buyer of the foreign_currency at a higher price (Shoub, 2013). On the other hand, the foreign exchange broker functions within the currency market. The currency market transactions work just like the stock exchange each foreign_currency broker member of the currency market buy and sell foreign_currency among each other. The broker earns a commission for each foreign_currency transaction. The transaction may be classified as either a buy transaction or a sell transaction. The terms direct quote represents the number of United States dollars needed to acquire one quantity of the foreign_currency (The Money Converter, 2015). For example, a Los Angeles person can convert one United States dollar to British pound at the current foreign_currency conversion rate. The current April 5, 2015 foreign_currency conversion rate is U.S. $ 1 = Ã £ 0.67. If the same person converts his $100 to British Pound, the person will turn over to the foreign_currency trader U.S. $ 100 and receive in return Ã £ 67. Further, the term indirect quote represents the number of foreign_currency needed to acquire one United States dollar (The Money Converter, 2015). Using the same conversion rate above, a London based buyer wants to purchase a chosen New York storeÃ¢â¬â¢s furniture. The furniture store only accepts United States currency. The furniture price is U.S. $ 100. Using the same conversion table above, the London buyer must convert his Ã £ 67 to the required United States $ 100. After the conversion, the London buyer can pay the New York store
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Art - Essay Example In CassattÃ¢â¬â¢s work, she uses very light colours and avoiding black producing a very romantic painting that depicts a mother and child. In ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s works, he disregards what was the dictum of impressionism by his characteristic use of black. Both artists are working from a Japanese style of design and perspective which according to many reports heavily influenced their paintings. According to pbs.org, ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s paints his forms quickly in rough brushstrokes clearly visible on the surface of the canvas. Instead of the carefully constructed perspective that leads the eye deep into the space of the painting, Manet offers a picture frame flattened into two planes. The foreground is the glowing white body of Olympia on the bed; the background is darkness. (Edouard ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s Olympia). The treatment of the subject matter is very different in both paintings. According to pbs.org, Manet chooses to paint a woman of his time -- not a feminine ideal, but a real woman, and a courtesan at that.(Edouard ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s Olympia).This woman is a self-assured prostitute and view of the public of the nineteenth century a scandalous painting which would have been destroyed by the public as reported by many people. According to the Guardian, Ã¢â¬Å"The subject matter is sensational - a nude who, in the eyes of 19th-century observers, was clearly a prostitute, in her trashy mules with a bootlace for a necklace, tucked in, to the ruffled white pillows and her skin is a bright, glaring white. The fully dressed black servant is featured, presenting her with flowers from one of her male companions.Ã¢â¬ (Olympia, Edouard Manet).In viewing the painting the prostitute clearly has a defiant and confrontational look which according to the Guardian, it is impossible to know whether her mood is one of melancholy or contempt.( Olympia Edouard Manet(1863)) On the other hand, CassattÃ¢â¬â¢s mother and child are much more easier and pleasurable to view. The Ã¢â¬Å"mother an d childÃ¢â¬ clearly depict the intimate love and bond between a mother and her child. According to Danielle Peltakian, Ã¢â¬Å"she painted in delicate brush strokes of pastel pigments typical of the style of Renoir and Degas. She created a romantic depiction of the female figure reminiscent of the early Italian renaissance Madonna and childÃ¢â¬ ( American member of the french impressionists school:note print maker.) According to tfaoi.com, The mother in the painting exudes a sense of dignity and purpose that challenges conventional notions of decorative femininity.(Mary Cassat, Modern woman).According to Anne Higonet, Cassatt made the experience of tiny children's bodies a visceral pleasure, both for the mothers represented within her pictures and for us, the viewers of the pictures(Two ways of thinking about Cassatt).She goes further in explaining that Cassatt's picture joins the forms of mother and child. The integrity of the individual body, which we could also call its isola tion, is replaced by a formal fiction of merged bodies. Cassatt engages us in the joys of infant flesh. (Two ways of thinking about Cassatt). In comparing the two pictures by Cassatt and Manet, the differences in depiction of women is immense. In manetÃ¢â¬â¢s Olympia, the woman is depicted as an object, while in CassattÃ¢â¬â¢s Mother and child the woman is a subject. Mary Cassatt depicted the modern woman of the Paris. A feminist perspective of her work pervades most of the explanation and analysis of her work which describe her as expressing her
Friday, July 26, 2019
The Impact of Organisational Learning on the Creation and Communication of Knowledge - Coursework Example This essay approves that communication of knowledge within an organization is important due to various reasons. It allows knowledge to be dissipated from the ones that already possess the knowledge to those employees that are new in the organization. When employees retire, their positions are taken up by new recruits. Almost all organizations are concerned about the issue of retention of knowledge within the organization after their valuable and most experienced employees retire. It is crucial that the level of knowledge with which work was done by the previous employees, should not deteriorate on their replacement. This purpose can be fulfilled only if there is smooth flow of knowledge with the organization. This report makes a conclusion that organizational learning refers to the change that occurs in an organization due to the knowledge acquired by the members of the organization through experience gathered with passage of time. Although this is the most common explanation of the term, Ã¢â¬Ëorganizational learningÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined in various ways by researchers. These definitions are affected by the mission and vision of the organizations that have been considered for the research and also the perspectives and pre-accumulated views of the scholars. Hence organizational learning has essentially become an interdisciplinary topic. Research on this topic draws elements from a number of fields and also outcome of this research makes extensive contribution to these fields leading to development of these fields, such as, theory of organizational behaviour, sociology and social psychology, cognitive psychology, information systems, engineering, economics, and strategic management. The pape r by Argote and Spektor (2011) provides a theoretical framework that helps to analyze the process of organizational learning and the level of knowledge gained on performance by employees. Purpose of the study The interdisciplinary nature of the study related to organizational learning makes it a topic of interest for research scholars. The paper selected for critical reviewing deals with this topic and presents an elaborate framework of study on organizational learning, covering the variations in the definitions of the term, the existing theory on this topic and analysis of this theory, importance of organizational experience in creating organizational learning and the process of organizational learning that includes creation, retention and transfer of knowledge. This purpose fits the paper very well since it has been published in the journal named Organization Science. This is because the journal aims at bridging the gap that exists between different disciplines and advancing the k nowledge that evolves from this process (Argote and Spektor, 2011). This paper has been presented with the view that the results would stimulate further research in future on this topic. Since it is a broad topic, there is wide scope of future research and researchers might find out new avenues to link the study of this topic with disciplines that have not been studied before with regard to organizational learning. Nature and extent of the issues Studies on Ã¢â¬Å"organizational learning and knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Argote and Spektor, 2011, p. 1124) are getting diversified due to the inclusion of a wide variety of ways in which knowledge is being created in present times and is being communicated. The authors of Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational learning: From experience to knowledgeÃ¢â¬ have identified the themes that are currently emerging in this field. This paper sets the scope for further research on these themes and develops the platform that would enrich the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ understandin g of the core topic. In this paper, it has been emphasised that creation of new knowledge and its smooth transfer across all levels of the organization is as important as proper retention of knowledge. In this paper transfer of knowledge is used synonymously with the notion of communication of knowledge. Proper learning through experiences is central to organizational prosperity (Taylor and Greve, 2006). It leads to greater understanding of the vision of the organization, fulfilment of the promises it has made towards its shareholders and the society and an overall improvement in organizational practice (Greve, 2003). Communication of knowledge within an organization is important due to various reasons. It
Thursday, July 25, 2019
HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY QUESTION - Assignment Example Cystic Fibrosis that is not showing or dominant is said to be recessive. The parents thus are carriers since they appear normal yet they have a child that shows the deformity. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s justified to say that the parents are carriers since for cystic fibrosis to manifest, like any other trait it requires two genes, one from each of the parents. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is connoted as the building block of an organism. It is known to be host to information that is crucial for a cell functioning for example protein synthesis as well as replicating itself. It contains four nucleotide bases namely: RNA appears same way as the DNA In that the two are nucleic acids with bases comprising of nitrogen and brought together by a sugar- phosphate. There are however divergences of the structures as well as functions characterizing RNA and the DNA. 6. In your own words, describe the process of protein synthesis, starting with the DNA, stored in the nucleus, and ending with the completed protein. Be sure to mention the terms code, codon, anticodon, mRNA, tRNA, amino acids and ribosomes in your answer. During protein manufacture, RNA kinds that play various roles include one, Messenger RNA referred as mRNA that is tasked with ferrying genetic message or information. A package of 3 mRNA bases within a row constitutes a codon which then defines an amino acid. The second is the Ribosomal RNA, referred as rRNA contained in ribosomes where the actual protein manufacture occurs. The third is the RNA tasked with transfer, tRNA that piles an amino acid on a developing protein. Since the DNA keeps genetic information, then the RNA ferries that message all the way to the cytoplasm, where it is utilized to manufacture proteins. Genetic counseling is a process that involves advising a couple about genetic conditions and to that effect taking a keen examination of a coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s family back ground (OToole & Marie, 755). The doctor orders the carrying
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Development Strategy - Essay Example and growth of specialized stores the competitive landscape became much more diversified. 'Boots operates in an extremely competitive environment where the pace of decision-making and speed of implementation is integral to success," said Boots' chief executive Richard Baker.' (WWD, Jan 23, 2004, p.13). In response to the changes of the environmental factors Boots Group has undertaken a number of measures. Among them are launch of the customer loyalty programmes, sale of non-core business branches, plans for merger etc. One of the examples is the loyalty programme that has been commenced early in the year. 'Customers earn four points for every 1 [pounds sterling] spent. They can buy goods with points, each point advantage card earned being worth a penny. Customers can also collect points on the Boots website, boots.com, but can't spend them on the site.' (Grocer, Feb 19, 2005 p45) The possibility to unite the efforts and capabilities with one more strong market player is for Boots Group another way of addressing the struggle for profits in a competitive environment. In October 2005 the company announced that 'it has been in talks for about six months regarding a merger with rival Alliance UniChem. The transaction was approved by both companies' respective executive boards and shareholders and is expected to be finalized in April, 2006.' (Hoovers 2005) The America's Intelligence Wire, Oct 3, 2005 noted that 'the merger comes after Boots. . .refused to reiterate profit guidance for the year amid slowing U.K. consumer spending and competition with Britain's top retailer, Tesco PLC'. Taken into account that the shareholders and potential investors are two more integral parts of the company's business environment, the rumours about possible merger that have been circulating for six months had significant influence on the stock performance. The ambiguity of the future outcome has partially caused the decline in the stock price earlier in the year followed by the increase after the announcement of merger has been made. (Reuters Quote 2005). The goal of the merger is to create 'an international, pharmacy-led company with a combined turnover of L13.0 billion ($23.11 billion), to operate under the name Alliance Boots. However, their proposal might yet be scuppered as several private-equity firms are reported to be looking at making a bid for Boots following the news that it is up for sale. Among these are KKR, Permira and Apax'. (Pharma Marketletter, Oct 10, 2005 p0) Another environmental aspect that becomes more and more important with the course of Boots expansion into the US market is the economic, social and political factors and the specifics of this market. The groups plan to gain strength in the US retail market in the upcoming few years: The firm is boosting its beauty product presence in U.S. retail partners CVS and Target, and by this fall, Boots beauty items will be offered in 130 stores, up from 32, which will give it entry into the key markets of Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Dallas, Minneapolis and suburban New York and Boston. This effort will also help the retailer gather data on how to successfully expand here nationwide in 2006 within these retailers. (Moore 2005, p.1) Organizational Audit The internal environment of the Boots Company is built upon a strong notion of
Video Business Report - Case Study Example The company should look at improving the liquidity position. It can be done thorough reducing the operating cost. It can improve the valuation of the company by increasing the revenue of the company. acQuire can improve the profitability by reducing the operating cost and overhead. This will improve the production efficient of the company. It can decrease the debt equity ratio by in increasing the profitability. It will increase the cash position ultimately and lead to increase of liquidity position of the firm. The company can increase the current ratio by reducing the operating cost. It will ensure that the production efficiency of the company improves. This will have a direct impact on the profitability also. The board now wants to develop a sustainable strategy so that it can avid the repeat of the global financial crisis in 2008. For this the company should increase the core equity capital and lower its debt ratio. With more debt ratio the company will be in obligation to pay of f their dues else it can go bankrupt. The company tries to lower its prices of the products and reinvest its profits back to the company instead of giving dividends to the shareholders. It will help the company in maintaining liquidity position so that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to face cash crunch when credit in the market dries up. Introduction acQuire Technology Solutions is an Australian-based company which develops and delivers Geoscientific Information Management System (GIMS) called Ã¢â¬Å"acQuireÃ¢â¬ . acQuire Technology solutions is facing many issues in its operation. The profitability of the company is decreasing from fiscal year 2012 to 2013. The forecasted profit of the company is also decreasing. The main reason for decrease in profitability is the increase in operating expenses. Hence the company is not being able to maintain its cost down. The current ratio of the company is increasing which shows that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidity position is improving. Share price o f the company has decreased from 2012 to 2013. This is because the net profit of the company is decreasing. The share profit of the company is also decreasing. There has been huge decrease in share profit from $ 792,551 to $ 319769. It is also predicted that the share profit of the company is also decreasing. The liquidity position of the firm is improving while the debt ratio of the company is decreasing. The company is using its cash balance to pay off its current liabilities. Foreign exchange gain of the company for the financial year 2013 was $ 26, 151 as compared to $ 93,960 for the financial year 2012. It indicates sufficient drop in profit for the company. Again it has been projected that the company will not earn any foreign exchange gains or losses. Discussion Decision Criteria acQuire Technologies Solution is facing a number of problem. The share of price of the company is decreasing because of loss of profitability. The current asset ratio of the company is increasing fro m 1.12 to 1.26. The company should look at improving the current ratio. Debt ratio of the company has decreased from 1.74 to 1.09. The ideal value of this debt ratio is 0.5. This shows that the company has high debt ratio. The company should look at decreasing the debt ratio. The profitability position of the company is decreasing. The net profit margin of the company has decreased from 11.3 % in FY 2012 to 4.8% in FY 2103. Again it is estimated that the ratio will further decrease by 2.9% in FY
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The Changing of American Workplace - Assignment Example The Changing of American Workplace There are various factors which may affect the workplace and working environment in a radical manner. One of the important factors is balancing family and work life. Balancing family and work life signifies that an individual should be engaged as well as satisfied with his or her responsibilities in relation to work life and family life. Employees are required to develop a balance amid work life and their personal life so that they are able to perform their activities in a relaxed way with zeal and dedication. Furthermore, the instability in personal and professional life has been affecting the working environment as well as personal life. It has been ascertained that there lays numerous factors such as workload pressure, demographic changes in relation to dual-income family and the sandwich generation and changes in workforce composition which dramatically influence both personal as well as professional life. This paper intends to discuss the various factors in relation to work-life balance which are accountable for affecting environment and workplace environment. Additionally, the discussion will also emphasize on asserting certain recommendations towards facilitating social as well as economic benefits. Work-life balance plays an important role in the life of every individual. Moreover, this aspect is also seemed to be adversely affecting the workplace and working environment. There are few major components on which the balances for work and life are dependent. These components are as follows: Time Balance An individual is required to devote equal time for personal and professional life. In this respect, time should be managed in an effective manner with the objective of creating a better balance amid work and life so that an individual is able to play his or her role proficiently. Time is to be managed in a flexible way so that individuals are capable to co-ordinate their activities efficiently (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2013). Involvement Balance Individuals are required to be involved psychologically in both family life as well as work life. In this regard, individuals should be mentally involved with activities in order to accomplish the required objectives successfully. Subsequently, employees with better psychological involvement are likely to deliver or execute their activities in accordance with the objectives and goals of an organization (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2013). Satisfaction Balance Individuals are required to have a balance in their satisfaction level both in their roles as well as activities which are performed in their professional and personal life. The appropriate balance in their professional as well as personal life, employees will attain increased level of satisfaction from their work and personal life accomplishments (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2013). These are the three major components which are essential for employees in order to manage and balance their work as well as personal life. On the basis of these three elements a work-life balance can be ascertained. The working environment and workplace are significantly influenced with certain social changes. The social chan ges are the major factors which are accountable for an increased concern in relation to balancing professional and personal life in an effective manner. The ultimate factor which is primarily accountable for the social changes in the working environ
Monday, July 22, 2019
Thermal Equilibrium Essay Thermal Equilibrium If you want to know the temperature of a cup of hot coffee, you stick a thermometer in the coffee. As the two interact, the thermometer becomes hotter and the coffee cools off a little. After the thermometer settles down to a steady value, you read the temperature. The system has reached an equilibrium condition; further interaction between the thermometer and the coffee cause no more changes. This is a state of thermal equilibrium. If the systems are separated by an insulator, such as wood, plastic or fiber glass, they influence each other more slowly. An ideal insulator is a material that permits no interactions at all between the two systems. It prevents the systems from attaining thermal equilibrium if the systems are not in thermal equilibrium at the start. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why ice is packed in insulating materials so that the insulation delays the process of achieving thermal equilibrium with the surrounding. Zeroth law of thermodynamics If system A is in thermal equilibrium with system C, and system B is in thermal equilibrium with System C, then System A and System B must be in thermal equilibrium. Important implication: THERMAL ENERGY HEAT Thermal energy is also frequently described as internal energy of a system. The internal energy of a system is the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy possessed by the molecules of the system. Heat is the amount of thermal energy transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. Important note: Heat and work are energy in transit. A body does not contain work; a force is needed to transfer energy between two interacting mechanical system. Likewise, a body does not contain heat; heat is the transfer of energy between two systems due to a temperature gradient. Does your body contain heat? If not, what does it contain? 1 The diagram shows two interacting bodies A and B. How would the heat flow; from A to B or B to A? A Internal energy = 100000 J Temperature = 40oC B Internal energy = 4000 J Temperature = 100oC Direct contact and thermal contact Two systems in direct contact mean that they are physically touching each other. Two systems in thermal contact may not always be in direct contact. Can you think of a situation where two objects are in thermal contact but not touching each other? CONDUCTION Conduction is the process by which thermal energy is transferred in a medium from faster vibrating particles (solids) or faster moving particles (liquids/gases) to slower ones through collisions. When one end of the rod is heated, the local molecules gain energy and vibrate faster. These molecules collide with their neighbouring molecules and transfer some energy to them. This process carries on with the next layer of neighbouring molecules and the energy is passed from the region of high temperature to regions of lower temperature on the rod. Why are metals good conductors of heat? 2 Hwa Chong Institution Sec 3 (SMTP) Example 2 The tiled floor feels colder than the carpeted floor even though both surfaces are at the same temperature. Why? Example 3 Why will the snow melt faster on some parts of the roof than others? Example 4 Sometimes during the winter, it is possible for the temperature to drop below freezing point during the night. In this case, farmers spray water on the fruits to prevent them from freezing. Explain how spraying water on the fruits may help. Question: Using the logic above, can we boil water in a test tube which is placed inside a beaker of boiling water? 3 CONVECTION Convection is the transfer of heat energy from a hot region to a cold region by the transfer of matter. The flow of convection is called the convection currents. Natural convection is due to a temperature difference that causes the density at one place of the fluid to be different from the density at another. Hot fluid expands and becomes less dense and consequently will rise. Whether the convection currents form convection loops (or a convection cell) depend on the space available for the convection to take place. Forced convection uses an external device such as a fan or a pump to mix warmer and cooler portions of the fluid. Question: You can hold your finger beside a candle flame without getting hurt but not above the flame. Why? Question: Some ice is trapped at the bottom end of a test tube by steel wool. A flame is applied near the mouth of the test tube until the water at the mouth of the test tube boils. Yet, the ice cubes are still present for quite a while. Explain why a fluid like water, which can transport heat by conduction and convection, does not transfer energy quickly from the flame to melt the ice. 4 Hwa Chong Institution Sec 3 (SMTP) Example 5 A half-boiled egg is prepared by placing a fresh egg inside hot water (slightly less than 100oC). You have placed three eggs at the bottom of the container with hot water. After a minute, you decided there is enough space for more eggs so you put one more egg on top of the bottom three. 15 minutes later, which of the eggs will be the most cooked? RADIATION Radiation is the process by which energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves. Radiation can travel through vacuum. This form of energy is sometimes called radiant energy. A good radiator is also a good absorber but a poor reflector. Some factors that can affect the rate of absorption / emission of radiation include 1 2 3 Colour of surface The classic experiment that shows that dark colour surface is a better absorber of radiant energy than a shiny surface. Clearly, a shiny surface tends to reflect radiation that falls on it. Hot water Surface temperature The hotter the surface, the more radiation it emits. A surface can emit all types of radiation, but at a specific temperature, it has a dominant emission wavelength (a particular type of radiation). For example, at human body temperature, the dominant type is infrared (thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we have infrared thermometers). In general, the hotter the surface, the type of radiation emitted will tend to shift more to the higher energy type like ultraviolet, x-ray or gamma rays. Surface area The larger the surface area, the more radiation it can emit. There are two important physics law describing radiant energy: Stefan-boltzmann law and the WienÃ¢â¬â¢s displacement law. However, these laws are not within our syllabus. 5 APPLICATIONS OF HEAT TRANSFER A thermos bottle, sometimes referred to as a Dewar flask, reduces the rate at which hot liquids cool down or cold liquids warm up. A thermos flask usually consists of a doubledwalled glass vessel with silvered inner walls. The space between the walls is evacuated to reduce energy losses due to conduction and convection. The silvered surfaces reflect most of the radiant energy that would either enter or leave the liquid in the flask. Finally, little heat is lost through the glass or rubberlike gasket and stopper because these materials have low thermal conductivities. Covering a space satellite with highly reflective material can prevent excessive temperature fluctuations that can damage the highly sensitive electronic circuitry. By reflecting much of the sunlight, the foil minimizes temperature rises. Being a poor absorber means itÃ¢â¬â¢s a poor emitter too. When the satellite is not shone by the sun (e.g. in EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s shadow), it will not emit a lot of radiation and causes the temperature to plummet. Halogen cooktops use radiant energy to heat pots and pans. A halogen cooktop uses several quartz-iodine lamps, like the ones in ultra-bright automobile headlights. These lamps are electrically powered and mounted below a ceramic top. The electromagnetic energy they radiate passes through the ceramic top and is absorbed directly by the bottom of the pot. Consequently, the pot heats up very quickly, rivaling the time of a pot on an open gas stove.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Balance Of Payment And Exchange Rate In Egypt Economics Essay Is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Thereby, Egypt is a transcontinental country, and is considered to be a major power in North Africa, Mediterranean Region, African continent, Nile Basin, Islamic World and the Red Sea. Covering an area of about 1,010,000Ã square kilometers (390,000Ã sqÃ mi), Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the worlds most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx. The southern city of Luxor contains many ancient artifacts, such as the Karnack Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East. Part 1 Balance of payment and Exchange Rate in Egypt: Balance of payments transactions are usually tabulated under two broad categories, current account and capital account. Current account includes visible (merchandise) trade as well as invisible items, such as tourism, shipping, and profits and other moneys earned overseas. Here is the results of studying an annual report for balance of payment and exchange rate in Egypt : The Year Balance of Payment (BOP) Exchange Rate The Comment 2005 5.5 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =5.77 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$=5.23 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate will be greater than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is in good situation and it was the best situation in the last 5 years 2006 2.7 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =4.34 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$=5.99 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate less than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is decrease and it was the worst situation in the last 5 years. 2007 3.1 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =4.76 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$= 5.00 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate more than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is start increase again 2008 4.1 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =5.3 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$= 4.33 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate more than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is still increasing 2009 5.38 billion Selling price:1$ =5.5 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$=5.23 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate will be greater than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is increased Part 2: Economic reform in Egypt In The Political Economy of Reform in Egypt: Understanding the Role of Institutions, Carnegie Middle East Centers Sufyan Alissa finds that economic reform, considered a priority by the Egyptian government, has not been fully effective for three reasons: it lacks public support, Egypt has failed to foster a competitive business environment, and the lack of dynamic and transparent institutions.Ã Alissa argues that Egypt lacks the institutional capacity to implement better-coordinated reform programs that address its socioeconomic realities, including widespread poverty and unemployment, high inflation, and a soaring public debt. Reform is needed to improve the efficiency of Egypts bureaucracy, increase the accountability and transparency of politicians, and widen political participation for Egyptian citizens. Key Findings: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Ã Egypt has failed to create a healthy and competitive environment for business development. Despite the passage of many laws to organize the business environment, the government has not developed an effective enforcement process for these new laws, and little progress has been made in the fight against corruption. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Ã Economic reform lacks popular support in Egypt as reforms are perceived to cause more harm than good as previous reforms have consistently failed to address socioeconomic problems. Furthermore, future reforms are predicted to increase the gap between the Egyptian rich and poor before the masses can feel the positive effects. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Ã The majority of the private sector and civil society is excluded from the debate over Egypts economic reform strategy. Public participation is crucial for advancing civil society institutions and promoting an effective role in designing and implementing comprehensive economic reform. Given the nature of the Egyptian state and the main actors in the market and civil society, developing the necessary institutions and, most important, making them function properly within a short period of time seems unrealistic. Hence, Egypt should make the choice: Either start developing these institutions soon or lag behind. Building these institutions is the responsibility not only of the Egyptian state but also of the private sector and civil society, contends Alissa. Part 3: Monetary Policy in Egypt: Egypts Monetary Policy Objective: Law No. 88 of 2003 of the Central Bank, Banking Sector and Monetary System entrusts the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) with the formulation and implementation of monetary policy, with price stability being the primary and overriding objective. The CBE is committed to achieving, over the medium term, low rates of inflation which it believes are essential for maintaining confidence and for sustaining high rates of investment and economic growth. The Governments commitment to fiscal discipline is important to achieve this objective. Fiscal Policy in Egypt: Fiscal policy is the use of Egyptian government spending and taxation to influence the economy. When Egyptian government decides on the goods and services it purchases, the transfer payments it distributes, or the taxes it collects, it is engaging in fiscal policy. The primary Egyptian economic impact of any change in the government budget is felt by particular groups-a tax cut for families with children, for example, raises their disposable income. Discussions of fiscal policy, however, generally focus on the effect of changes in the government budget on the overall economy. Although changes in taxes or spending that are revenue neutral may be construed as fiscal policy-and may affect the aggregate level of output by changing the incentives that firms or individuals face-the term fiscal policy is usually used to describe the effect on the aggregate economy of the overall levels of spending and taxation, and more particularly, the gap between them. Conclusion: Egyptian economy is one of the most attractive economies in the world that is because it faced mane ups and downs, also the large number of population in Egypt affects the economy in a very observing way. Thats why the economics ministry in Egypt must take care for its behavior.
Tpm In Japan Industry Management Essay It can be argued in Japan it is strongly believed that the success of a country depends on the brilliance of its production ability. Japanese commitment to continuous technical innovation in manufacturing industry, in which allowed them to become a leading economic power. Many Japanese manufacturing companies believe that there are two key feature needed to create a reasonable benefit: one is attractive products and strong manufacturing potential. Japan has made a concerted effort to strengthen its manufacturing capability over the last three decades, however to accomplish this success many Japanese factories implemented TPM. Manufacturing industries which retain production plants in Japan, concentrate on improving output by implementing TPM. (Yamashina,Ã 1995) 3.2 Why TPM It can be argued there are many reasons why TPM has stretched so quickly in Japanese industry and also companies outside worldwide are interested. The main reason for expanding of TPM is provide remarkable results, first transforms the work place evidently and elevates the knowledge in production and maintenance team. Companies practicing TPM consistently achieve reduce in equipment break downs, minor stoppages, reduction quality defects, cutting accidents and promoting employees confidence. TPM increases workers roles in the decision making process. TPM increases roles in providing input and in making tactical decisions. Empowering the workforce is the main goal of TPM. TPM helps operators appreciate their equipment and expands the range of maintenance and other tasks they can handle. It allows workers to make new finding, obtain fresh knowledge and enjoy new skill. It strengthens motivation, prompt interest in their work and concern for equipment and furthers the desire to preserve equipment in top good condition. (chokotei in Japanese) 2.3 TPM Implementation In order to implement a successful TPM structure of the firms need to be studied. unacceptable organization structure can guide to the failure of TPM implementation. A typical organizational structure for TPM implementation is as shown in Figure below: Figure 14: TPM Structure According to (McBride, 2004) TPM needs effectual management from higher level, without successful leadership TPM efforts to the business, worker, equipment performance and consistency will keep on to decline. Also TPM is a long range program which can take more than few years to implement there for is more reasonable for firms to have a person responsible of implementing TPM. 3.1 TPM Implementation Nakajimas 12 Steps Total productive maintenance TPM was developed byÃ Seiichi Nakajima, Vice Chairman of the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance, and below are the 12 famous steps for implementing TPM: Step 1: TPM management declaration This step requires top management support for TPM introduction. Lacking the support of management, doubt will execute the proposal. TPM aims need to be highlighted clearly in companys newspaper, newsletter and magazine. Step 2: TPM education This step will allow and teach all the employees about TPM. Managers provide data and presentation, in other hand this step of implementing TPM also include collection of data about TPM and to appreciate how it works. Step 3: Create Organizations to Promote TPM This team will encourage and continue TPM activities once they started. One of the tasks of this group to include individual from every level of the organization from each department in the firms, this structure will allow good communication between each departments to achieve same goals. Step 4: Establish Basic TPM Goals In this step existing conditions need to be analyzed and set of goals needed to be sets. The established TPM policies and goals should be very simple and obvious to everyone concerned in TPM implementation. Step 5: TPM Development Master Plan In this stage full master plan for implementation of TPM is all set and suggestion given to management. This task can be done by a consultant, with a plant visit to study production operations, equipment problems and losses, maintenance operations, and cleanliness in the plant, and talk to employees to determine their motivation and attitude. The consultant can then come up with proposal plan (Hartmann, 2000) Step 6: TPM kickoff In this stage visible study will establish a base dada, against which TPM results and progress can be calculated. Also teams needed to include OEE explanation and calculations of important equipment. The study will assess the condition of these equipments, maintenance activities and personnel skill. Then viability study results are presented to management team. Hartmann (2000) Step 7: Improve Equipment Effectiveness In this steps TPM guide installation should cover between %25 percent overall equipment, need of different teams to insure carry on of the installation. All employees in the stage must get TPM training. Step 8: Establish an Autonomous Maintenance Program Program need to be drawn for how to manage maintenance effectively, Maintenance that is performed by the machine operator rather than the maintenance staff Step 9: Introduction inspection: Inspection needs to be carryout and by checking TPM fundamentals are done correctly. . Step 10: Conduct Training This stage highlights the importance of training the worker to achieve high standard performance from the equipment. Step 11: Certification: The stage is very important because certificate is to show to the client that equipment and product quality have been improved and maintained from equipment. Step 12: TPM Award: The final stage is reward for TPM installation is. By gaining award it shows the improvement in the firms also carrying out individual reward to boost worker morale. 3.5 TPM and Training It can be argued team approach training will help development of worker individual skills. The aim of training is to have multi-skilled and refreshed employees with high morale, who are keen to perform all the required functions. By correctly formulate teams create an environment where employees know the benefits of training and the correct method of operating their equipment, research shown that motivation is misplaced because the workers not last long enough at specific workplace to seek basic equipment problems (Kennedy, 2006). Company normally motivated independent small teams activities with the aim of matching with company goals and constant training which includes formal daily basis knowledge about equipment and maintenance issues (Kister et al., 2006). 3.6 TPM and Autonomous Maintenance (Jishu Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is the procedure in which operators recognize and share responsibility within maintenance area to check the performance of the equipment. According to (Robinson and Ginder 1995) the idea of Autonomous Maintenance is the creation of skilled equipment workers for protecting equipment maintenance. In other hand (AM) can be a keystone of TPM activities. (Komatsu 1999) according to the writer in this Autonomous Maintenance environment, the maximum requirements for operators to have the ability to notice nonstandard with relation to equipment The goals of Autonomous Maintenance are following (Suzuki 1994): Prevent equipment decline . Bring equipment to its ideal state. Establish the basic conditions needed to keep equipment well maintained. 3.7 TPM and Planned Maintenance It can be defined as a planned maintenance system in which rising production without no failures, no defects and improving the quality of maintenance methods by increasing machine availability. Implementing this activity powerfully help decrease input to maintenance activities. Also planned Maintenance supports the concept of zero failures (Shirose 1996), also the aim of TPM activities is to support company structures by eliminating losses through the achievement of zero defects. 3.8 Kobetsu Kaizen Kaizen is a Japanese word in which means (improvement), this methods objective is to improvement a number of small improvements to reach and maintain zero losses. The key feature of kaizen is that it is an ongoing improvement approach process through eliminating losses using all techniques for kaizen and by shifting the operation process to make the job more productive. The Kobetsu kaizen 10 steps development are showing in the figure below: Figure 15: Kobetsu kaizen 10 steps Development 3.9 TPM and Quality Maintenance Quality maintenance can be described a establishment of circumstances that will prevent the incidence of defects and control of such circumstances to reduce defects to zero. According to (Japan institute of plant maintenance 1996) can be accomplished by establishing environment for zero faults, inspecting and monitoring conditions to eliminate disparity, and carry out blocking actions in advance for equipment failure. It can be argued the key thought of quality maintenance is focusing on preventive action before it happens rather than reacting after it happens. Quality maintenance, like (MP), structured to develop within the focused Improvement, Autonomous Maintenance, PM, and (MP) all are TPM support. Quality maintenance helps implementing TPM by make certain equipment are functional up to high standard. (Schonberger 1986) (Pomorski, 2004). 3.10 TPM and Office Office TPM is another important part of whole package of TPM and it need to implement in correct way to improve productivity, efficiency from administration side and also eliminating of losses. This includes analysing processes and procedures for increased office efficiency. Office TPM demonstrates twelve major losses (Venkatesh, 2007): Processing losses; Cost losses include accounts and marketing sales Communication losses Office equipment breakdowns Communication breakdown Time depleted on recovery of information Supply eminence non- accessibility Customer complaints emergency purchases precision loss Setup loss Idle loss 3.11 TPM and Environmental, Health and Safety The TPM safety and environmental support is important as well as other aspect mention before, no TPM program is significant without focus on safety and environmental issues. According to (Suzuki 1994) describes ensuring equipment consistency, stopping human error, and eliminating disaster and toxic waste are the key aims of TPM. The operators must be trained to execute risk evaluation to build self-assurance and hazard maps should be available to stay away from needless exposure. According to (Heinrich 1980) shows for every 500,000 safety issues there are 300 are near neglects, 29 injuries, and 1 death ash showing in figure below. In recent years environmental safety is attracting more focus for when implementing TPM. Many argue manufacturing management currently will be less efficient without environmental safety. In todays manufacturing environment, environmental safety includes decrease of energy use, elimination of toxic waste, and decrease of material raw material use (Pomorski, 2004). http://kaizenrms.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/heindrich2bprinciple.jpg http://www.tpmconsulting.org/images/EngV/concept_pic26.jpg Figure 16 The Heinrich Principle
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Language Analysis of Lou GehrigÃ¢â¬â¢s Farwell Speech to the Yankees Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lou Gehrig was one of the best baseball players to ever play the game. He was blessed with an amazing career playing for the New York Yankees setting many major league records such as 2,130 consecutive games from 1925 to 1939. Unfortunately all good things must come to an end and on July 4, 1939 Gehrig stood before his devoted fans at Yankee Stadium and announced that he had been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The man that was known to everyone as the Ã¢â¬Å"Pride of the YankeesÃ¢â¬ , on this very day, showed how courageous he was by giving a passionate speech to his fans that was filled with sarcasm, emotion, and pride. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã GehrigÃ¢â¬â¢s speech to the 60,000 fans sitting before him was short but convincing. He wanted to convince his fans that in his eyes this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a defeat. He proclaimed that he considered himself, Ã¢â¬Å"the luckiest man on the face of the earth.Ã¢â¬ Language was used to manipulate his fans into seeing the good and not the bad in this tragic situation. Instead of speaking of his illness, Gehrig reminded his fans of all the amazing people he has been able to meet and play for, his loving family, and his record setting career. He starts of the middle two paragraphs of his speech by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, IÃ¢â¬â¢m lucky,Ã¢â¬ and continues on with remarks about the great men of baseball he has had the opportunity to work with. He continues on at the end of the speech with sarcasm, implying to the audience th...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Before covering the main idea behind how technology can enhance learning of special students, it is important to discuss what qualifies a student as ?special?. Special Education is identified as, ?the education of children who deviate socially, mentally, or physically from the average to such an extent that they require major modifications of usual school practices,? (Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2005, p.1). According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, ?students with disabilities include those with mental retardation, hearing impairments, speech or language impairments, visual impairments, serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities,? (Warger, 1999, p.1). Since there are so many different types of disabilities, each student needs to be assessed to determine the best type of learning environment for them (Ralabate, 2002, p. 13-14). This is a very important part of help ing special education students from the very beginning of their education. With the right leadership from teachers, and knowing what works best with teaching each unique student, they can reach their full potential in learning. Inclusion ?Children who learn together, learn to live together? (Renaissance Group, 1999, p.1). Resurfacing the issue of different teaching methods in Special Education, many schools educate students in an Inclusive environment. Inclusion refers to the placement and participation of students with special needs into a general education environment such as classrooms and extra curricular programs (Lewis & Doorlag, 1999, p.5). Many find the use of inclusion in schools very beneficial to both special and general education ... ....gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=Thesaurus&_nfls=false This an online ERIC thesaurus defining assistive technology. ?Special education.? EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica Online. 2005. This is an online encyclopedia definition of special education. Internet Resources Internet for Education. (2005). Retrieved on April 27, 2005 from http://www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/education?sid=4740639&op=preview&manifestid=82&itemid=7126 This site contains information on the ways the internet can enhance education. Renaissance Group. (1999, October, 14). Inclusive Education. Retrieved April 20, 2005 from http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/ . This site contains a lot of current information concerning the importance, philosophy, and future of education in an inclusive environment.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
CSC 1208 Ã¢â¬â BASIC COMPUTING ASSIGNMENT 2 Technology is evolving from time to time. As time goes by, new technology has come into place replacing the aged technology. However, we realized that without the previous technology, it is impossible for the new generation to enjoy the benefit of the technology we have today. To appreciate the golden aged technology, discuss in your group about an elder technology right from the beginning until how their evolved and improved to the latest technology today in a variety of fields including in education, finance, government, health care, science, publishing, travel, manufacturing, hospitality and media.Marking Scheme This assignment is 10% of coursework. Your assignment must include the following: 1. Assignment Cover Page 2. Assignment Marking Scheme 3. Assignment Question 4. Table of Content 5. List of Figures 6. List of Table 7. Introduction Ã¢â¬â Synopsis 8. Objectives 9. History 10. Evolution 11. Latest technology 12. Contribution o f the technology 13. Room for Improvement 14. Conclusion 15. References 16. Appendix Ã¢â¬â Presentation slides . Table of Contents: Acknowledgementvi Technology in Robotics based on Artificial Intelligence Perspective. 1. 1 Objectivesvii 1. Introduction to Robotics based on Artificial Intelligenceviii . Introduction to Roboticsix 3. Introduction to Artificial Intelligencex 4. History of robotics. xii 5. History of Artificial Intelligencexiii 6. History of robotics based on artificial intelligencexiv 7. Evolution in technology in robotics. xvi 8. Evolution of Artificial Intelligencexvii 9. Latest Technology in Roboticsxix 10. Contribution of Robots to the human society. xx 11. Latest Technology in Artificial Intelligencexxi 12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Artificial Intelligencexxiii 13. Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligencexxv 14. Conclusionxxix 15.Appendixxxx * Acknowledgement We would like to express our deepest gratitude to Mr. NorShahriel f or his guidance and help in carrying out this project. We also wish to thank INTIÃ¢â¬â¢s library, Tan Sri Abdul Majid for the resources that was used for this research. We would like to thank the creators of google, Larry Page and Sergey Brin for creating such a wonderful website and helping us save time from having to travel to the library. * Technology in Robotics based on Artificial Intelligence Perspective. 1. 1 Objectives * To understand the computer science branch, Ã¢â¬ËArtificial intelligenceÃ¢â¬â¢ To appreciate the benefits of Artificial Intelligence in Robotics. * To be aware of the growth of Artificial Intelligence in Robotics. * To keep updated with the evolution in the technology in Robotics. * To learn how humanÃ¢â¬â¢s view on robots have changed according to different times. * To bring attention to the contribution of artificially intelligent robots in the human society. * To understand how Artificial Intelligence came about. Introduction to Robotics based on A rtificial Intelligence In robotics, you can never deny that artificial intelligence is the most exciting field you can find.Despite that, it has it controversial moments as well because as we all know robot can do work as it has been programmed, but can it ever be as intelligent as a human? This question lingers in the mind of researchers and to resolve this particular statement, it will definitely take a long time. Therefore, people should put it aside and continue to improve robots for the sake of a better future. As everyone is aware, robots can only absorb a certain amount of knowledge compared to humans but what humans donÃ¢â¬â¢t have is a guaranteed error free day.Robots can be programmed to not make the same mistakes that humans always do. But then again, even if humans are smarter, it is hard to avoid certain habits which lead to repeated mistakes over and over again. To see the ability of robots, recently in Japan, researchers have taught robots how to dance. Dancing used to be a skill only a human was able to do, but now even robots are able to do it. This shows how technology has improved through the years. Robots are able to help in the education field too, as robots can now interact socially with humans.Since the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population has limited working educationist/teachers/lectures in this modern world, robots would make a great addition to the educational field. Although this might take a few more years to make it perfect, the base is already in progress now, and as time passes by, robots will get even better. Robots are also key in the manufacturing sector as quantity is important when it comes to gain in profit. A robot can work 24 hours in a day without stopping and this makes everything move faster and therefore increases production.Fewer work forces will be used and thus it will not be time consuming anymore. But the presences of humans are still necessary in the manufacturing sector to keep a watchful eye on these robots to make su re that it is error free. In the future, robots will continue to evolve in line with artificial intelligence itself and will benefit the society in so many ways. There will be a time when people go to a supermarket one day, and see it all operated by robots and not a single human in sight except for the manager in charge.This will be an amazing sight to see but it needs a lot of planning and work. Researchers are currently working on both of these elements to create and modify what people have now into something great. One day, yes. Introduction to Robotics As a generation very dependent on technology, robots have certainly played a major role in the modern day society. Over the years, the definition of robots has varied from person to person. Many may perceive them to be androids, human-like dolls made out of metal with computerized brain that has been instructed to obey everything a human says.Others might identify robots as a device, programmed to do various tasks in places such as factories where human abilities are inadequate and labor cost are high. In anyway, robots have been created and developed to make peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ work easier and their lives more comfortable. Robots for many years have been a subject of interest for many sci-fi movies, books and animations while also being one of the most challenging fields in science where scientist have struggled to create the most human-like mechanical doll movies and cartoons have portrayed robots to be. Cool JapanÃ¢â¬â¢, one of the programs belonging to the Japanese news channel, NHK world recently discussed on the view of robots around the world and it was proven that the Western side of the world viewed humanoid robots negatively and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t encourage the creation of the robots that are able to feel and think like a man, as they have been stereotyped by books and movies that to be life threatening that could cause the human race to be enslaved by them.Meanwhile, the Eastern side of the world (count ries such as Japan, Korea, China, etc) viewed robots in more open minded ways and actually promoted building robots that can act and think like a human. Scientists have still yet to create the a perfect robot that can act and respond to any actions or words out of their programmed instructions but as technology develops in a rapid speed, it might not be long before the robot who can feel and think like humans might be invented. Introduction to Artificial IntelligenceArtificial Intelligence is a branch of Science that is embedding human characteristics into the machineries by performing simple tasks by fixing specifically programmed rules. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also commonly known to be Computer Science but however it branches out to many more fields such as Mathematics, Psychology, Biology and Philosophy. The fundamental point of Artificial Intelligence is that every programmed set of rules is expressed as an algorithm. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no denying that computers are able to process logic but th e ability if a machine can think remains unknown to scientist and researchers.Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â The four approaches of Artificial Intelligence Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â The four approaches of Artificial Intelligence As you can see in Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â It shows Four Approaches of Artificial Intelligence. We can then divide the approaches into Ã¢â¬Ëhuman centered approach and rationalist approachÃ¢â¬â¢. The first human centered approach would be The Cognitive Modeling Approach where machines are able to think humanly. Basically, this approach relies more on Human Psychology. We would have to analyze how the mind works so then it would be implement and express the theory as a computer program into the machine.If the computer program is able to match the timing and human behaviors then it would be possible to program machines like the operations that are already in humans. Then you have the first rationalist approach of Ã¢â¬Å"Laws of ThoughtÃ¢â¬ which is when machines are able to think rationally. Aristotle, the Greek philosopher was the first to attempt to classify Ã¢â¬Å"right thinkingÃ¢â¬ . He basically provided the given argument structures which will always generate the correct conclusions given that it is in right environment.The laws that he laid out for the future, became the operation of the mind which then was categorized as logic. With this as their basis, it allows Logicians to build programs within Artificial Intelligence to create intelligent systems in the future. The second human centered approach is the Turing Test approach when computers are able to act humanly when given a set of questions that were prepared by a human. In order for the computer to pass the test it would have to fulfill these criteria: To enable the computer/machine to communicate successfully in English * To store what the computer/machine what it knows or hears * To use stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions * To adapt to new circumstances and to detect and conclude patterns Lastly, you would have the second rationalist approach which is the Rational Agent approach where machines are able to act rationally. An agent is something that acts and computer agents have attributes that differentiate them from the other typical programs.A Computer Agent is able to operate by observing their environment, persistence, adapting to change and capable to take on another goal Ã¢â¬â like humans do. Rational Agent is when it acts to achieve the best outcome even when the situation is vague it is still able to give the Ã¢â¬Ëbest expected outcomeÃ¢â¬â¢. History of robotics. The early name for Robots was Ã¢â¬ËAutomatonÃ¢â¬â¢ and was very different from modern day robots. They were merely mechanical (often made out of wood), operating in a limited amount of steps. They were mainly created as toys.However, the origin of robots can be dated all the way back the early civilizations and even in myths and legends. The earliest concept of Automaton recorded in history was in 400 B. C when Archytas of Tarentum, a Greek mathematician (also the inventor of screws and pulley) built a mechanical bird of which he called, Ã¢â¬Å"The Pigeon,Ã¢â¬ This mechanical bird is also believed to serve as one of the first models for modern airplanes. In the period when building robots was believed to be impossible due to lack of resources and limited knowledge, various individuals had their own description/ idea of how a robot should be.They all had different versions but the basic concept was a piece of man-made doll built to serve mankind. The famous artist, Leonardo DaVinci himself had drawn a design consisting of what resembled an armored knight from the medieval times. During the time when computer was yet to be invented, the earlier form of robots came with the use of simple Physics principles consisting of few processes that were repeated throughout and none of them had a brain like todayÃ¢â¬â¢s robots. Such forms include t he Flute player which played 12 different songs, invented by a French Inventor, Jacques de Vaucanson in 1738.The 19th century was the peak for most robot creations. The term Ã¢â¬ËrobotÃ¢â¬â¢ was first coined by a Czech author, Karel Capek in 1921, where it was introduced in his play, R. U. R (RossuumÃ¢â¬â¢s Universal Robots). The first invention of modern robots only arrived in the early 1950s by George Charles Devor, who invented the first industrial robots (machine arms used in factories). Robots enjoyed their popularity in the 1970s mainly due to the Hollywood movie, Ã¢â¬ËStar WarsÃ¢â¬â¢ by George Lucas where the plot was set in a future where human beings lived together with robots.The movie allowed people to visualize themselves in the far future and therefore its fame was celebrated widely all over the world. History of Artificial Intelligence The first time that Artificial Intelligence was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy in the Dartmouth Conference. He is one of the founders of AI research and he defined the field by Ã¢â¬Ëgetting a computer to do things when done by people, are said to involve intelligenceÃ¢â¬â¢. However, in 1950 it was Alan Turing that introduced the Turing Test which is machine learning, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning.This discovery was not categorized as Artificial Intelligence but Turing was articulate in his 1950 article Ã¢â¬Å"Computing Machinery and IntelligenceÃ¢â¬ which became the step before Artificial Intelligence was recognized by John McCarthy in 1956. The Dartmouth Conference was a stepping stone as it expanded due to a range of theories and principles by dedicated researchers. The first computer was built back in 1941 Ã¢â¬â but it was not until 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s that scientists realized that the link between human intelligence and machines werenÃ¢â¬â¢t too farfetched.The concept of Artificial Intelligence was a slow on-going process as it took nearly a decade for scientists and researchers to re-examine the ideas that were formed in the Dartmouth Conference. Nevertheless, it introduced all the major figures of Artificial Intelligence to each other. Evidently, for the next 20 years Artificial Intelligence was dominated by lecturers, students, and colleagues at MIT, CMU, Stanford and IBM. After the Dartmouth Conference, two researchers from Carnegie Tech Newell and Simon developed the Ã¢â¬ËLogic TheoristÃ¢â¬â¢. In the eyes of other researchers and scientists it was an Ã¢â¬Ëoveroptimistic visionÃ¢â¬â¢ from the two scientists.Logic Theorist was a theory that was based on Even though it was a breakthrough for the newly found Artificial Intelligence branch it led them to a bigger success which was the Ã¢â¬ËGeneral Problem SolverÃ¢â¬â¢. The two researchers Newell and Simon redeemed themselves with their creation of the Ã¢â¬ËGPSÃ¢â¬â¢. It is a computer program that imitates the way humans solve problems. History of robotics based on artificial intelligence Ro botics is one of the sub divisions in artificial intelligence and as you might not know, it definitely has a rich history behind it. As we all know, history is very important when it comes to understanding a certain topic.We might know a certain something based on what it is now, but what we usually do not know is where it all started. History is something that will enrich your mind about a certain something and will definitely be a helping factor in understanding certain topics. Since, robotics has a really long and wide history, understanding and doing research about it needs a proper timeline to help us keep track of the progressions of it. In 1932, the first real robot was made in Japan. This specific robot was called Ã¢â¬ËLilliputÃ¢â¬â¢. It was just merely 15 cm tall and was made out of tinplate.The Japanese had made a big step in innovation and they have been evolving ever since. In 1950, the great Alan Turing proposed a test to determine a fact that stated if a machine ha d the power to think for itself. In order to determine if the machine could pass the test, it was required to be indistinguishable from a human during conversation. This test was named the Ã¢â¬ËTuring testÃ¢â¬â¢. During the year 1954, the first robot arm was invented by George Devol and John Engleberger. This creation became the first robot to complete general and tasks including multitasking on a factory assembly line in the company General Motors.In 1957, Ã¢â¬ËSputnikÃ¢â¬â¢ was launched by the Soviet Union and was called the first artificial orbiting satellite. This marks the beginning of the space race between them and the American people. In 1964, the first computer started to mass produced by IBM 360. The computers we are using today are all based on this particular computer by IBM. In 1969, the United States finally made themselves on to the moon. Using the latest technology of space and robotics, they sent Neil Armstrong onto the moon. The famous Ã¢â¬ËR2D2Ã¢â¬â¢ f rom the movie Star Wars is now famous among all of us as the talking robot could interact with humans and also perform certain tasks.In 1986 Honda launched the making of a walking humanoid robot. Based on the images describe in movies, Honda wanted to build a similar object which was real. Although it was tough, Honda tried their best. Also in the same year, LEGO started producing educational products that was done to contribute to younger generation to give them a clearer picture of how robots were like. Until today, we can see LEGO products still on shelves at supermarkets and toy stores. From the small picture of robot, to the real thing, it shows that it all started from an idea to a real one. In 1994, the University of Carnegie invented an eight-legged walking robot.This spectacular robot was used for a historic evolution in robotics. This robot was used to collect volcanic gas samples from Mt spur. The name of this robot was Ã¢â¬ËDante IIÃ¢â¬â¢. After the successful projec t, it proved that humans were able to build a robot that was heat-resistant. This was important because humans managed to achieve an incredible feat because robots could now be used to go to places that even humans will have a hard time going. On May 11 1997, a world was chess champion was defeated at this own game by an IBM built computer which was called Ã¢â¬ËDeep BlueÃ¢â¬â¢.This achievement was amazing due to the fact that now a machine built by humans could now challenge a complex human mind. In the same year, Lego launched the first Robotics invention system that used small components that are also educational for kids. This small model was key to the development of robots because humans could experiment future creations. In 1999, Sony released the first version of AIBO which was robotic dog which had the ability to entertain, learn and also communicate with its owner. This invention was a hit in the market and SONY made plenty of profit from t and production was continued with newer and more sophisticated models. The main target market for this product was for children, many of them were amazed by the abilities of this robotic dog, and all of this was made possible by the evolution of robotics itself. In the millennium of 2000, Honda made an improved version of its creation by introducing the robot ASIMO which was a new generation of humanoid robots. Honda which is a car company took a risk of venturing out of their field to robotics and all of it paid off when the robot made an incredible display at many international technology exhibitions worldwide.In 2008, robotics made a grand entrance into the household department by the introduction of the Roomba robotic vacuum which has since sold over 2. 5 million units worldwide. A huge demand was set for this robotic mechanism and is still being produced until today. Lastly, by the timeline explained above, we get to see how robotics has vastly improved in the field of artificial intelligence. It was also beneficial from the olden times until the new era of today. Without the inventions and ideas that were given by inventors of the past, robotics has since developed into a field that humans need in their daily lives.Status is temporary, history is permanent. Evolution in technology in robotics. The birth of robots were mainly celebrated in the West but as time passed, the East had done more for the development and growth in technologies in the robotic field of which Japan is one of the leading countries, contributing to positive opinions among the public regarding humanoid robots. For a form of entertainment for the aristocrats in the 18th century to helping hands in the 19th century, robots have almost taken over job sectors where accurate thinking and high workforce is needed.From Mechanical automatons made partially out of wood that were just invented to awe the public, technology in robots have been developed to act autonomously, which means a robot can do a task without the pres ence of a human. The field of artificial intelligence has given life to modern day robots. Hundred years back, it would have been controversial for a robot to replace a manÃ¢â¬â¢s job but robots have been slowly implemented into the contemporary society over the years that it has become a norm to find a factory once filled with people, now with just the presence of the repetitive monotonous sound of machines.Evolution of Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence as it is today, had taken a lot of improvements and is still improving. All of this was made possible by the evolution of it. Evolution plays an important role in anything. Without evolution a new technology could not be vastly improved. To start if off, in 1941 the first electronic computer was named Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) and was introduced to the world. At this time artificial intelligence was not fully recognized yet but this was where it all started. In 1949, the first computer stored program was created . This program was also made commercial.BINAC was a big success because it made a big leap for technology as a whole. In ran a test program which consisted of 23 instructions. Although, it did not have full working functionality, it was still considered the first commercial stored program. In 1956, the Dartmouth conference was held in Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. This was where artificial intelligence was born. This particular conference gave scientists and idea of the benefits of artificial intelligence to humans around the world. Furthermore, this conference did set some critical goals to be achieved in the future. In 1958, the lisp language was invented.This is a programming language which was created to develop a clear list of programming language. In addition to that, lisp machines were specially designed to run lisp programs. Without the creation of these machines, the lisp language could not used to its fullest potential. Today, lisp language still dominates the artifi cial intelligence category and is still widely used around the world. In 1963, Ã¢â¬ËDODÃ¢â¬â¢ started their advanced research projects. Now, Ã¢â¬ËDODÃ¢â¬â¢ is called DARPA which stands for Defense Advanced Research Project Agency was created after the launch of Ã¢â¬ËSPUTNIK 1Ã¢â¬â¢ which was the first artificial satellite to be placed in orbit.This agency first dealt solely on space-related projects. When all the agendaÃ¢â¬â¢s were taken over by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, they were almost closed down. But that did not prevent them from continuing their verge into the depths of artificial intelligence; they started to conduct research into stealth technology and continuously branched out step by step. Without this particular agency, research into Artificial Intelligence would have stopped long ago. This agency played a big role into the evolution of artificial intelligence as a whole unit.In 1968, the first Micro world Program was invented. This program was named SHRDLU. This program was created to improve the evolving nature of artificial intelligence. Usually, normal scientist will tend to ignore less relevant details. They want to concentrate more on the important details. In artificial intelligence, this could not be done due to the delicate and in-depth nature of it. With this program, artificial intelligence could ensure that programs were capable of intelligent behavior in such a way that simpler forms of the artificial world can be accessed to micro worlds.In 1970 the first expert system was developed. This system was developed by Edward Feigenbaum and Joshua Ledeberg from the University of Stanford in California. Basically, this program was invented to overcome manpower. This program is able to do tasks that regularly need human expertise to complete. With this creation, manpower was reduced significantly. In the year 1972, Prolog Language was revealed. This programming language became a serious competitor to LISP which was widely used before. Until today, these two programming languages are still competing with each other until present.The new significant difference that Prolog Language brought to the world was its ability to make us give emphasis on logical relations between object and entities that are relevant to a certain problem rather than taking procedural steps to deal with it. This gave people a choice of which programming language they preferred. In the year 1986, a total of 425 million U. S dollars was earned from the sales of artificial intelligence based software. During this time artificial intelligence proved that it had an actual stronghold area in the market which was demanded by the world.In 1991, the Artificial Intelligence system was put to test in a military test system which was called Ã¢â¬ËDesert StormÃ¢â¬â¢. This was an effective evolution in artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence system was used in missile systems by the military and also other military advancements. In addition to that, Apple Macintosh and IBM started to use voice recognition systems that make computers more user-friendly. Day by day the demand for the Artificial Intelligence technology has risen more and more day by day.New advancements and technologies have started to become available to us. Artificial Intelligence has become inevitable for us not to use on a daily basis. In the future, the evolution of artificial intelligence will continue to prosper with time. If evolution stops, things will stay stagnant as it is and we would stop improving. Latest Technology in Robotics In recent years, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s this ideology that Ã¢â¬ËRobots could replace Humans in the FutureÃ¢â¬â¢. It is a debatable subject in Robotics that due to the constant evolution of technology is making it easier for robots to replace Humans.However, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s still time for scientists to realize the full potential of Robotics with help from technology. This statement might be proven right as thereÃ¢â¬â¢s already known robots that are able to execute tasks by thinking analytically by using the set of algorithms and rules that are already built into the robots in order to Ã¢â¬Ëthink like a humanÃ¢â¬â¢. Robots are the most commonly known examples of Artificial Intelligence and scientists are being more and more innovative by creating more sophisticated and user friendly robots to society.Robots are applicable to any kind of field; itÃ¢â¬â¢s already used in Healthcare, Entertainment, Business, Communication and Psychology. So far, no machine is able to pass the Ã¢â¬ËTuring TestÃ¢â¬â¢ but there are a few machines that made a mark in Artificial Intelligence History. Watson Ã¢â¬â IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s supercomputer that was able to defeat two human beings at the trivia game show Jeopardy. Not only that, this supercomputer managed to beat the reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s still room for improvement but so far Robotics is just able to perform only a fraction of what human is able to do.The latest technology is ECCEROBOT 2 (Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s basically the first robot to mimic human form with not just the outward form of a human but it also copies the inner structures such as bones, joints, muscles, etc. With this new found breakthrough, researchers are still investigating its human like actions and interactions which has potential and should be built upon for the mere future. The Humanoid robots are finally getting recognition in society and are gaining support from all sci-fi geeks all over the world.Contribution of Robots to the human society. In this modern era, where it has become easier for humans to lose social skills and the ability to take care of others, artificially intelligent robots have taken their place in society; doing the jobs that originally belonged to human. As peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to take care of their elderly has dissipated in most dev eloped society where individuality mindset have been encouraged, technologies in the robotics fields like nursing robots have filled in the places of nurses and care takers.Robots have not only been created to help the elderly and disabled but has been invented in order to keep children pre-occupied and entertained as the once male-dominated society slowly adapts to the emancipation of woman and the balance in the gender equality. Robots have filled in both the roles of younger caring generation and the elderly watchful eyes. Autonomous robots have been sent as far to space as well where human beings cannot survive due to the condition of it. They have brought back the evidences of outer space, travelling further than human beings and feeding nswers to curious minds. Mankind has created robots in order to serve them but as years have passed, these artificially intelligence machines have surpassed their own masters. Latest Technology in Artificial Intelligence Technology in artificia l intelligence has never stopped developing since we stepped into the millennium due the abundance of technology that is found day by day. With that, latest technology in this field is an important thing to highlight due to the fact that it continues to amaze us by the things artificial intelligence can manage to do.First of all, recently in 2011, an artist and composer by the name of Benjamin Grosser invented an interactive robotic painting machine. This was done after he decided to explore the realms of artificial intelligence and art. Basically, what the robot could do was it could listen to itself with the microphones placed into the machine. After listening to itself, it would paint out an image based on what it interprets after listening to the sounds. Two trays of paint would be placed in between a piece of canvas, and a mechanical arm will perform the painting.Although this technology could not be classified as pass or a fail, it depends on different people. Some would like the fact that a robot can paint, and some would just prefer the old fashioned way. Furthermore, the invention of the SOINN robot by the Japanese has managed to impress us. SOINN which stands for Self Organizing Incremental Neural Network is a revolutionary robot which is able to perform tasks that are related to exploring a new situation and learning how to do it. For example, the robot is able to learn how to pour water into a glass and make it cold by placing ice cubes into the glass.After that, it gives the water to a person. Before the robot starts the task, it tries to acclimatize itself to what is located around it. With this, it performs it tasks better. Moreover, what amazes us even more is when the robot has both of its hands full because it has to decide which item to put down in order to pick up another one. What the researches in Japan have done is create a robot with no specific list of pre-created commands that it has to follow. Therefore the robot is able to think by itself and decide what to do in any given situation.The SOINN robot can also connect itself to the internet and also other robots to help gather information from the web. The researches have provided the robot with power to gain knowledge for it in order to complete any given task that is assigned to it without fail. What we gain for this is a generation of robots that are independent enough to think for itself and complete human related tasks that may seem impossible to complete before the invention of this prime piece of technology. As the research goes on, a new found technology by Toyota has been able to attract many people around the world.Toyota has been able to create a prototype of a smart car which is fitted with voice recognition and also able to detect human motion. This smart car was inspired by video games and mainly the XBOX360. The reason behind this is mainly due to the kinect technology that has been introduced by Microsoft into its game platform. What kinect does i s basically detecting human motion and turning it into a physical action that a human was supposed to perform. But now, with this technology, all a human has to do is just ensure that the machines understand the motions that are made.For example, when a person is walking towards the car, this prototype is able to detect it and will open the car door. All of this was inspired by the revolution of video gaming consoles. This prototype car will be power by a 100 volt AC voltage and is expecting to have many more features. Although this car is still at prototype level, it will take a few more years to make it into reality. With time, more improvements can be made to ensure the car is suitable for everyone in the world. In the health care industry, artificial intelligence has combined with biochemical understanding to help those in needs.For example, recently it was Memorial Day for soldiers in the United States who have served in Iraq. And for one lucky soldier, Lt. Col. Greg Ganson, hi s dreams of walking again came to life when he was gifted a pair of prosthetic legs. These pair of prosthetic legs is called Power Knee2 which will enable amputees the walk again with more safety and confidence combined together. This is no ordinary prosthetic leg because this one users the combination of artificial intelligence and sensors to make the walking process a better one.Furthermore what the inventors did was connect the prosthetic leg via sensors using Bluetooth to a laptop. This was done during the process of walking to make some required adjustments to the legs to ensure comfort. It is also fully customizable and differs from person to person. Moreover it gives everyone a better chance of achieving what they can get out of real legs. So far, this new invention has made some improvement based on the early 2006 model which was called power knee. This new model is able to adapt to situations such as if a person wants to sit down, climb a fleet of stairs or even lie down.Th e inbuilt sensor will detect these situations and adjust the stiffness of the prosthetic legs. All in all, the latest technology in artificial intelligence has surpassed a lot of expectations and will definitely have the capability to expand even more with the sands of time. Regardless in any field, artificial intelligence benefited. Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Artificial Intelligence Technology in Artificial Intelligence is quite a controversial topic Ã¢â¬â the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions are quite divided but they cannot stop the Future of Technology as it is constantly evolving.The pros and cons are quite straight forward. Based on several articles, there are several advantages that was constantly brought up * Evolving Relationship of Humans with Computation * Increases Job opportunities * Machines complete the task faster than a human The first point to be discussed would be the Ã¢â¬ËEvolving Relationship of Humans with ComputationÃ¢â¬â¢. The newer and old er generation is welcoming this new era of Modern Technology being used in Artificial Intelligence. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s at the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s dispense Ã¢â¬â it will be there whenever users wants to use it.The second point will be the increased job opportunities for humans to be more specialized in a specific field in order to be more innovative in building new and improved versions of Artificial Intelligence theories. The last and final point will be about technology constantly evolving. This would then increase the level of Artificial Intelligence which will make it even harder for humans to execute the tasks. Which means that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require much resources as the machine has the Ã¢â¬Ëbest outcomesÃ¢â¬â¢ possible built into the program.This becomes less time consuming as it requires less time for the machine to gather information and resources in comparison if a human was handed this task. This is when Artificial Intelligence is at its advantage Ã¢â¬â they are emotion less, more efficient and lightens the burden on the human when it comes to doing dangerous or far too complex problems. Along with the pros, there will always be cons that go along with it. There are several disadvantages of Technology in Artificial Intelligence that is not really supported by the intelligent educated people that dare question the theories of Artificial Intelligence in Technology in general.These are the several disadvantages that was brought up * Human Feel * Misuse of this technology * Ability to replace a human job The first disadvantage will be the Ã¢â¬Ëhuman feelÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â robots inability to feel the emotional understanding for humans. This will cause the machines lacking in the ability to sympathize with the human situation and this would cause them to act irrationally as a consequence. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s beyond the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsible for the robots Ã¢â¬â which results to no-one getting the blame for the machineÃ¢â¬â¢s faults. The second disa dvantage will be the Ã¢â¬Ëmisuse of this technologyÃ¢â¬â¢.Countries are always prepared for war, so with countries in the race of getting the best defense systems if this technology gets into the wrong hands it can inevitably cause mass damage. Artificial Intelligence is also getting incorporated into military training Ã¢â¬â getting autonomous robot troops to get sent first before the human troops. For example, in the US Ã¢â¬â they are already testing on this theory which cost them almost twenty five million dollars for just a test run. Its quite a huge risk to take if the technology arenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to support the specific needs to minimize damage on the humans.Also, with technology evolving Ã¢â¬â people are able to hack the system of these robotic troops which can backfire the source control. The third and last disadvantage is that with technology constantly evolving humans are feeling threatened in fear of losing their jobs. Technology has different branches of Art ificial Intelligence and robotics has played a major role in this new era of Technology taking over society. This would then lead to mass unemployment in the future if the future of Technology in Artificial Intelligence is progressing forward. Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial IntelligenceIn everything single that you do in this world, no matter in what field, there will always be advantages and disadvantages. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s how they co-relate with each other in everything that we do. In artificial intelligence, different people have different views about it and because of that this research aims to see what those advantages and disadvantages are and how they relate with us. First of all we will talk about the disadvantages of artificial intelligence to give us a better picture of the bad side to this technology phenomenon. The first one is over dependency.When we feel too reliable towards something, we forget that those machines were made by humans. Therefore, machines are no t perfect in every sense and can malfunction and any given point or time. If we are too reliable on them and they fail on us, we will be stuck at a point without any solutions to deal with the situation at hand. We always need to have some sort of backup plan to ensure that if the machines fail, we can overcome the situation straight away and not make any losses or any sorts. The second disadvantage is the lack of human feel. We humans always have a certain touch towards something and of course we have emotions as well.For machines, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the emotional values to relate with us humans therefore some decisions made could be fatal to us. The more we try to eliminate the number of manpower in our industries; we lack the human feel day by day. It might be good at a point of time or even fatal at another point of time. To stick on the safe side, we should keep the human feel present at all times to keep rationality present in what we do. Besides that, some people think th at artificial intelligence is unethical in a way. To us, we believe intelligence is a gift from god and should be valued not cloned into something.This form of so called Ã¢â¬Ëplaying godÃ¢â¬â¢ is not fancied by many. On the other hand we can look at this in different ways. Some people might want to keep their intelligence to themselves but others might want to share it to the world in different forms. With this, everything goes both ways because if our intelligence is captured by the wrong people, misuse of it can lead to unwanted events. On the other hand, if we keep our knowledge to ourselves, the world will not expand in such a way because if we share it with many, more theories and more development will be present and therefore expand the network on artificial intelligence.This is definitely crucial at this era. If machines are able to do all our jobs, we will definitely lose our jobs at the hands of those machines. When everything task is done by machines, the human workfor ce will definitely have a significant decline. The ones most affected will be the ones at the lower levels of management. The higher ones will act as supervisors and with a click of button, machines can be controlled. With many people not having jobs, the crime rate will definitely go up and people will end up committing suicide just to ease their pain.Although machines are able to perform our daily tasks, we still need a workforce to operate them and ensure that everything is running smoothly. If the machines malfunction and there is no workforce, more money will be spent in fixing the machines rather than the salary of every single person working. Having a machine do something will definitely be less time consuming, but having a person operating it and making sure that it is running at full efficiency is something that will benefit us.Furthermore, if machines keep on doing everything for us, the new generation will be born and labeled as a lazy bunch. The new generation will not k now what doing work feels like because machines are doing everything for them. This will also lead to health issues such as obesity. More and more people will be staying at home instead of going out to work. This health issue poses a serious health risk for every country in the world. More and more people will be unhealthy and soon many problems will occur in this world.We should move forward with time and technology but sometimes we just have to think of the consequences before doing a certain thing to ensure both time and consequence are well taken care of in every aspect possible. All these disadvantages stated should be always lingering in our minds so that we remember what will happen if we fail to deal with it. Although the disadvantages of artificial intelligence sounds bad in a way, but there is always some good in it. Listing the disadvantages first opened us up to the possible bad effects of artificial intelligence.In the following page I will continue on discussing the ad vantages of artificial intelligence. When both of this combines, you will get to see a brighter picture on what artificial intelligence really mean to us. Seeing the disadvantages only might give us a bad impression straight away but when we the see the following advantages I will change our mind on our lives of artificial intelligence. To say it is a bad thing, we would jump to conclusions because we our ourselves are the ones who created artificial intelligence and for us not to see the good part it would be a waste to humanity.We only live once and we must make the most of it every single time. The first advantage of artificial intelligence is dealing with the jobs that require human intelligence. Humans are complex organisms with a huge amount of capabilities. For a machine to clone the human brain is amazing and can be considered a good technology innovation. If machines are able to cope with jobs that are supposed to be done by humans, we will be more productive as now we have two brains working as one. With that, it expands the human knowledge in such a way to keep improving time.Before the invention of these things, humans will have to risk their lives during things that seemed very hard to get done. Now, with machines being able to take over their place, it will be a safer method for humans to get work done and no lives have to be risked in the line of work. Safety is one of the main factors of job application in the working world. When people see that a job that used to be risky now has a new method to reduce it, more people would be interested in joining the workforce and thus eliminates the rater of poverty and also homeless people.With more jobs offered, a country will prosper more in the economic sector due to more people working and will contribute in giving the company more help in combination with the machines. Secondly, machines do not stop and get tired. Machines are strictly powered by electric sources and therefore will keep on going no ma tter what are the odds. Humans on the other hand get tired and have certain hours of work; therefore they can only work for certain period of time. For example, if a company is producing cigarettes and needs to have more production done day by day.If this needs to be done, humans can only do it to a certain extent because they need breaks and need to go home. If machines are there to continue the work left off during the night, by the next day double the production will be present. When machines are at work humans can rest and this makes everyone happier in such a way. Artificial intelligence also reduces the risk of anyone getting sick with illness. If a person has to work overtime and is always at the office, the risk of that person getting ill with be high.And what was just pointed out was only for one person, what if it was a whole group of people? More and more people will be affected by this and increase the health risk posed. When machines are there, humans will not have to p ush to limit in everything they do, machines can do it for them and this will save all the hassle of getting ill and having to be admitted to hospital. If this is eliminated, everyone will be living healthy and happy at the same time due the good relationship between man and machine. Next, artificial intelligence has lead to serve as aids. Mainly it has contributed as health aids.People with disabilities now have a place to turn to and technology to help them get through life which is already tough at hand. Nowadays, more and more health related problems are thrown to us with a big bang without a certain solution. With the help of artificial intelligence and research, now medical treatment for these diseases and even machines have been created to help us get through these tough times. Now not only adults have health problems or disabilities, children are now climbing up the list of people with health problems. The death rate will definitely go down with these new inventions as we al l have something that may help us n a way to cure the pain and the sickness. If we manage to overcome all these health problems with the help of technology, the world would turn into a happier place and not a place which leads us to endure suffering instead of happiness in our lives. Lastly, the power that artificial intelligence holds is limitless in such a way that it has the power to do everything that is thinkable and not thinkable. Humans tend to make errors and by us knowing this fact, we are able to program a certain machine to ensure that the machine does not make the same mistakes.By doing this less mistakes will be made and everything will run smoothly as planned. Rather than us learning from our mistakes, we should program it to a computer because a computer does not make any mistakes. We would then expand the boundaries of everything on this earth because if we stop moving forward we will stop the flow of technology as a whole and thus stop improving on what we have now. At the end of the day, all we can do is look at the future and ensure that we have now will get better in time.We definitely are not able to predict the future and the challenges we are going to face but what we can do is take good care of the resources in technology that we have now and nurture and improve them day by day until we reach the future. All we can do is hope for the best and that everything we have now will be relevant in the upcoming years of our lives. We should ensure that the advantages of artificial intelligence do not turn into disadvantages and the disadvantages should be always remembered and not turn into something far more worst.We strongly believe that artificial intelligence has gave us and is going to give us more good than bad because it was invented by humans for a reason and the main reason is to help other humans. If it was bad, we could have seen far worst consequences. Even though I think of it as a good thing, we should always remember not to let it fall in the wrong hands with crazy minds to protect this world. Conclusion As the world becomes very advanced in technology, it has been hard to keep up with the ever-so growing advancement into the computerized world. The robotic technology has benefited the human kind greatly in various ways.However, as people lose their heads in this advanced society, they have failed to realize that robots are a helping hand and a guide, not a replacement. There are fields robot cannot fill in the position for a human but as robots become more intelligent, people find themselves turning lazier. Half of the population in the developed world has become dependent on robot personals and misuses robots by over-using them. Robots have made peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives comfortable and safer. However, at the same time they have caused the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s employment rate to plummet and some jobs to extinct.As the popular belief goes Ã¢â¬Å"If you suffer now, you will enjoy later- if you enjoy now, you will suff er laterÃ¢â¬ , this is a very true saying that shows that in order to achieve happiness, people have to go through hardship but however, if we are lazy and donÃ¢â¬â¢t go through any hardship, there will be a time we pay the price for it which here could be set as an example for a sluggish human being relying on robots to do everything. For people who encourage the full implementation of robots with artificial intelligence into the working sector, they have failed to see beyond their own comfort and at other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s situation.If the society was one day supposed to be run by robots, then there wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be any need for human kinds. Therefore, although there is the resource and the knowledge to create robots, while appreciating the tasks they have done for us, we also have to realize our limits and set a bar to how dependant on robots do we really want to be? 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