Wednesday, November 27, 2019
HRM Practices at Superior Energy Services Introduction Superior Energy Services is an oil and gas corporation that operates in different countries, backed by its engineering experts that map and devise resolutions for clients. The company has a record of setting up particularized tools and expertise with the purpose of satisfying the requirements of its customers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on HRM Practices at Superior Energy Services specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During the initial times of operation, Superior Energy Services established the application of rigless plugging, in addition to desertion services (Dinger Schell, 2014). From its establishment in 1980, the company has retained a leading position in numerous developments that profit oil and gas customers and producers. As a consultant in Human Resource consulting firm, Superior Energy Services has hired our firm to carry out a Human Resource Management analysis and give recommendations to impr ove its alignment of Human Resource practices to the major business projects of the company. Despite its leading position, Superior Energy Services encounters a number of Human Resource Management issues that it requires addressing to ensure that it upholds success and boosts performance. History The remarkable development of Superior Energy Services was attained in a comparatively short period and could be attributed to hard work, tactical possessions, and a concentration on satisfying customer anticipations. Superior Energy Services began its operations in 1980 (Dinger Schell, 2014). From its inception, Superior Energy Services has developed from 125 workers and 12 million dollars in profits to a publicly traded corporation that has more than 4.5 billion of profits per year and about 14,000 workers across the globe. At around 1995, Superior Energy Services provided a comprehensive inventory of particularized instruments for boring, production, and well workover actions. To fund e nhanced development in its operations, the company started an initial public offering (IPO) of stock in mid-1990s.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the IPO, the company developed rapidly through acquisition of over ten small and medium-sized companies in a period of 3 years. Before the end of 1999, the company had combined with Cardinal Services, the market leader in the Gulf of Mexico and the biggest holder and user of liftboats in the area. By around 2005, the marketplace in the Gulf of Mexico was alive with congestion and encountering low product prices. To boost asset exploitation, the company turned global. In 2006, the company extended its onshore activities in Northern America via acquiring of Warrior Energy Services, which made Superior Energy Services the best Northern America production improvement company. In 2008, the expansion of Superior Energy S ervices intensified with its progression in the offshore market (Superior Energy Services, 2015). With the constant expansion of the capabilities of Superior Energy Services, its reach similarly expanded and it was ranked position fifteen by FORTUNE Magazine in the list of the highest growing 100 companies. In early 2010, the company declared David Dunlap its new Chief Executive Officer. Strategy The winning strategy employed by Superior Energy Services in its development has been making the most of industry successions, expanding its reach, acquiring other companies, and adapting to varying situations. Such endeavors have been strengthened by the dedication of the company to customer service and offering resourceful, lucrative services anywhere they are required.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on HRM Practices at Superior Energy Services specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, in 2012, the company, in accordan ce with its proactive advance to development, started shifting its endeavors to land markets and global expansion via a couple of objectives, the sale of some of its liftboats and the fusion with other companies, such as Complete Production Services. Attributable to merger with other companies, Superior Energy Services attained greater access to other markets (Dinger Schell, 2014). The merger of Superior Energy Services with other companies and the ensuing surplus cash flow have made the company hasten its efforts to meet its rising global opportunities. Market Position Superior Energy Services operates offshore in its Gulf of Mexico market, onshore in the US, and in numerous global marketplaces. Superior Energy Services has locations in different strategic positions in Texas as well as Louisiana for gas and oil endeavors in places such as Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Pennsylvania just to mention a few. The drilling products and services division of Superior Energy Services carries out activities in Northern America, the Middle East, Europe, and West Africa among other areas, and encompasses pressure management tools, distinctiveness tube-shaped supplies, encompassing drill tube, linking iron, and handling devices amid others. The main customers of the company encompass independent gas and oil companies, for instance, Chevron Corporation and BP to mention a few. The main competitors of the company include other growing companies, for example, Global Industries and Helix Energy Solutions Group (Dinger Schell, 2014). Attributable to their global expansion, other rivals in the sector such as Weatherford International and Schlumberger have posed great competition to Superior Energy Services. In the production of gas, in addition to oil, the company encounters competition from the above named companies, over and above other companies, for instance, ENSCO International and Transocean, which concentrate on offshore drilling along with production of oil.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Area of Alignment Superior Energy Services is entailed in carrying out the drilling, completion and production associated requirements of gas and oil companies internationally via oilfield services and tools that are employed all through the fiscal development of gas and oil wells. Superior Energy Services works via 4 sections that encompass Drilling Products and Services, which rents, produces, and trades particularized devices and instruments for application in well boring, manufacturing, conclusion, and workover actions. The second section is the Onshore Completion and Workover Services, which provides fluid management, servicing of wells, as well as pressure pumping (Superior Energy Services, 2015). The third section is Production Services, which comprises of intervention services, in addition to specialized pressure management devices. The fourth section is Subsea and Technical Solutions, which provides services and products handling client-specific requirements with functions characteristically necessitating particularized engineering, production, and mapping of projects. Superior Energy Services provides services to the energy sector clients who center on producing and increasing gas and oil internationally. Job Pricing and Compensation Package Due to the need for modern expertise in the company to decrease risk, boost completion effectiveness, and capitalize on production, the pay rates amid most employees in the company is based on external competitiveness (Dinger Schell, 2014). The company, as well as its subsidiaries, acts as a fair and Affirmative Action boss where minority groups, veterans, individuals with disability, and women are given employment opportunities based on merit. Via involvement in the E-verify plan, the company automatically authenticates the employment qualification and legality of Social Security Number of every one of its new employees. The job positions in the company provide an excellently-supported compensation package enco mpassing a high basic salary, in addition to a bonus plan. The employees also get excellent benefits package that includes Dental, Health, Life, and Vision insurance to mention a few. Achieving Organizational Objectives Superior Energy Services improved its earlier targets and established new targets to enhance continued advancement and direct the company towards its leadership objectives with the purpose of better aligning the performance of the company with environment, health, safety, and social responsibility strategy. A number of the targets encompass end-of-process targets, for instance, enhanced safety performance, decreased air emissions, and concentrating on the outcomes of its strategies. Further targets are the in-process targets that concentrate on the best manner in which the company could carry out its endeavors (Guest, 2011). Even though adherence to environment, health, and safety is still the major section on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operational anticipations, the compa ny comprehends that its activities have to be centered on offering a significant involvement in the interests of the societies where they function. Additionally, with the requirements of enhanced transparency, it is vital to have a strong practice of stakeholder involvement in position. With the state-of-art skills, Superior Energy Services will achieve its organizational objectives. In this regard, the concentration of the company is developing and attaining new outcome targets, considerably boosting the overall performance and setting up methods to emphasize line management accountability. This will necessitate the company to turn its approach into a game plan and ensure accurate assessment of its performance. Technology Deliberations To accomplish productivity with respect to the organizational goals, Superior Energy Services requires offering strategic management and guidance in the creation of consistent, organized, responsive, and lucrative best practice expertise. The company should address Architecture Governance to make sure that the application of technology is in line with the overall planning roadmap, technological values, and present and rising best practices in the sector while coordinating with Information technology to ascertain that the applied technology encompasses every applicable contribution and viewpoint. The managers should cautiously guide, mentor, and supervise a technological team of experts such as engineers and architects while watching over the establishment of technological policies and systems. Such professionals in the company will establish and suggest policies for technological resolutions anchored in the evaluation of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s aims and future objectives (Buller McEvoy, 2012). Labor Marketplace and the Suitable Labor Law The stresses of oil and gas companies in the labor market are turning greatly evident. Such stresses keep on affecting the set project outlays with some of the plans being interrupted or abandone d. A common difficulty for oil and gas companies lies in infrastructural limitations. The varying competitiveness and rising technologies and skills have turned into a great challenge to many companies. With increased demand in the labor market, companies encounter the unparalleled pressures to maintain and develop talent. To stay abreast of the exceedingly vibrant and competitive labor market, Superior Energy Services requires developing a strong talent channel (Tooksoon, 2011). With different challenges in the labor market, labor laws are devoted to safeguarding working families that have the heaviest burden in case of violations. For instance, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) normally deals with violations arising from inappropriate compensation of overtime. The FLSA demands that every covered worker has to be compensated a minimum of 7.25 US dollars per hour, in addition to time and 50% their normal rates for each hour they operate past forty each week. The law also forbids e mployers from hitting back in opposition to workers that apply their rights in accordance with the law. The FLSA affirms that employers that go against the law are liable to workers for redress (Weissbrodt Mason, 2013). Another applicable labor law is the occupational safety and health (OSH) Act, which is interested in the security and wellbeing of employees. Additionally, the OSH Act is also set to safeguard co-workers, members of the family, clients, employers, and other people that could be distressed by the workplace setting. For instance, employers have the task of taking sensible care for the wellbeing of their workers. Companies Preparing To Embrace Change Apart from Superior Energy Services, other companies preparing to address changes in their Human Resource Management practices include Citrus Energy, Anadarko Petroleum, and Chesapeake Energy. These companies possess the mining rights and safeguard the technological and specialized labor force required to identify extracti on locations, build them up, finish drilling, and get wells set for production. In alignment of Human Resource practices to the main business projects, the companies are employing subcontractors for nearly all operations in the drilling or well locations. The employed subcontractors do extraction and geological activities, land renting and acquirement, and oilfield backing services. Human Resource Concerns Cutthroat competition for talent in the industry is compelling Superior Energy Services to mull over its human capital requirements and the policies needed to maximize its approach to and maintenance of professional and experienced employees. Since some of the necessary skills are highly transferable to other sectors, the oil and gas sector might get itself competing with other industries for required talent while as well struggling to create new talent (Alfes, Shantz, Truss, Soane, 2013). The requirement for competent employees will compel Superior Energy Services to sharpen its focus with respect to hiring, training, and retention of talent, in addition to establishing a lasting inclusive human resource policy. Devoid of execution of excellent strategies, Superior Energy Services risks losing for poor performance in the sector. The gains will be immeasurable if the company centers on developing and fostering its talent team, and difficulties overwhelming if it takes a more lackadaisical advance to its human capital. Recommendations Ensure Retention and Stability of Workforce To ensure the development and retention of a stable labor force, Superior Energy Services should promote a competitive skill-based pay and offer inducements to workers that demonstrate inventiveness and leadership attributes. This will persuade the employees to attain the necessary skills and offer the company the flexibility to handle the varying needs of the clients (Tooksoon, 2011). Enhance Training The required understanding and responsiveness of employees varies with time and mar ket demands. To ensure a lasting, competent labor force, the company should change its training approach with varying market demands and offer fresh training to old employees as a way of updating them for improved effectiveness (Dreher Dougherty, 2002). Keep Employees Safe and Occupied For competitive advantage in the struggle for skilled labor, Superior Energy Services should concentrate on first-rate, safe, and encouraging environments for its employees. One way would be through ensuring growth by fair promotion of employees from new hires, supervisors, to senior managers and offering seniority-based pay (Tooksoon, 2011). Conclusion From its establishment in 1980, Superior Energy Services has retained a leading position in numerous developments that profit oil and gas customers and producers. Nevertheless, regardless of taking a leading position, the company has Human Resource Management issues to handle to ensure that it sustains its success and improves its performance. The str esses in the labor market are turning greatly evident and could affect the set project outlays resulting in interruption or abandonment of some plans. Aggressive competition for talent is compelling the company to mull over its human capital requirements. Some of the recommendations offered encompass enhancing training and seeking ways to ensure retention and stability of the workforce. References Alfes, K., Shantz, A. D., Truss, C., Soane, E. C. (2013). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behavior: A moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management, 24(2), 330-351. Buller, P. F., McEvoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human Resource Management Review, 22(1), 43-56. Dinger, E., Schell, T. (2014). Superior Energy Services, Inc. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, Cengage Learning. Dreher, G., Dougherty, T. (2002). Human resource strategy: A be havioral perspective for the general manager. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Guest, D. E. (2011). Human resource management and performance: Still searching for some answers. Human Resource Management Journal, 21(1), 3-13. Superior Energy Services. (2015). Retrieved from https://superiorenergy.com/ Tooksoon, H. (2011). Conceptual framework on the relationship between human resource management practices, job satisfaction, and turnover. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 2(2), 41-49. Weissbrodt, D., Mason, M. (2013). Compliance of the United States with International Labor Law. Minnesota Law Review, 98, 1842.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
How to Answer Ã¢â¬Å"Why Have You Had So Many JobsÃ¢â¬ YouÃ¢â¬â¢re sitting in the interview, and things are going fine, when the hiring manager looks up from your resume, eyebrow raised, and asks the question youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been dreading: Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve had an awful lot of jobs, havenÃ¢â¬â¢t you? Can you walk me through that?Ã¢â¬ DO understand why this is a potential red flag.You probably had reasons for every job switch on your resume. The interviewer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that- all he or she knows is whatÃ¢â¬â¢s printed in black and white on that fancy cream-colored stock. He or she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been fired from every position youÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever held, or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a serial quitter when a shinier new opportunity comes along. Before they can hire you, they need to get a solid sense of your employment history to help determine whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re a good bet for this company. If you look like a flight risk, the company might not be willing to make that investment in you.DONÃ¢â¬â¢T assume this m akes you look bad by default.The fact that the interviewer is calling attention to your, uh, varied history is not meant to make you feel ashamed, like some kind of job floozy. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re asked to clarify (or even just given an opening to do so), take a deep breath and make sure you have an elevator pitch-style explanation.DO make sure you have context for all of it.A shoulder shrug or a long, awkward pause is the least helpful response you can give here. Be prepared to talk about why you have a variety of jobs listed over a short(ish) amount of time.DONÃ¢â¬â¢T make stuff up.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re asked about the jobs youÃ¢â¬â¢ve listed on your resume, be honest. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to give every gory detail about why you left a particular job, but if you stick to the broad outlines you should be okay. For example: I was let go due to a company restructuring at XYZ Corp, and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until I landed at the Elite Agency the following year that I felt like I was back on t rack, professionally.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s okay to admit that you left jobs in the past because they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t a great fit for your professional goals, but be sure to reiterate that you see this current opportunity as having long-term potential.DO consider revising your resume to edit out some job change details.Do you really need every single one of your jobs on there? If you have entries on your resume that lasted less than a year, think about whether that job really adds relevance to your history. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not using anyone from that job as a reference and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a major cornerstone of your relevant experience, then consider dropping it.For example, this block of your resumeÃ¢â¬ ¦Edgy.com Marketing Coordinator, March 2010 Ã¢â¬â February 2012 Whirlwind Inc. Marketing Coordinator, February 2012 Ã¢â¬â November 2012 MakeAMatch.com Social Media Director, November 2012 Ã¢â¬â June 2014Ã¢â¬ ¦could be narrowed down to this:Edgy.com Marketing Coordinator, 2010 Ã¢â¬â 2012 MakeAMatch.com Social Media Director, 2012 Ã¢â¬â 2014This way, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve smoothed over an interim job that looks like an odd blip, without leaving a gap. This can also avoid awkward explanations about why you left that middle job so soon.If this question comes up in your interview, take heart- itÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessarily a dealbreaker. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a conversational opening to give context and explain how those jobs turned you into the stellar candidate you are today.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Ethology on monogamy - Essay Example In the work of Eibl-Eibesfeldt it is arguable that men have a higher reproduction potential as opposed to women (235). This means that men can produce as many children as possible as opposed to the women (Eibl-Eibesfeldt 235). Ethologists also argue that men hold the perception that they can produce children, not take care of them and get away with it. The society in this case, has been categorized as a patriarchal one that sees propagation of genes, by the ones in control of the natural resources the means of production in the society (Eibl-Eibesfeldt 235). This trend needs to be replaced by monogamy. On the contrary, I would argue against this fact by indicating that women also have a way of accessing means of production, and having the number of children they wish as opposed to the archaic times. This will prevent the rising of groups of promiscuous men in the society. Adultery should, therefore, not be termed as a norm in the society. Eibl-Eibesfeldt says that in the globe today, women are also polyandrous, whereby women can marry as many men as they wish (236). Systems have in this case been reversed. On another viewpoint, Eibl-Eibesfeldt indicates that hyper-sexualization is immoral (235). In human beings, sexual behavior is as well for bonding as opposed to procreation exclusively. Besides the need to have children, there is need for a couple to have extended needs with their couples. Both the man and woman are able to care for children, usual for Homo sapiens. Group marriages are then disqualified; thus, man is not allowed to fall in love with other females (Eibl-Eibesfeld t 236). Sexual freedom is then confined to one person; an argument that leads to Eibl-Eibesfeldt indicating that patriarchal families need to be dissolved as they are unnatural and exploitive (236). Monogamous families are victorious, as one gender mostly the woman paves way for the leadership of the male as the head of the family, as opposed to the polygamous families, that have various centers of power. Jensen says that in monogamous marriages, both males and females bond for a while, and that both parents contribute to caring for the offspring (80). This clearly indicates that the males have no justification of leaving the child behind with the mother on the basis that the women need to care for the children. The males then have no time to look for other women but contribute equally in caring for their offspring. This concurs to the thoughts of Joanna, who indicates that monogamy is not an exception, but to a certain extent, a rule that ought to be adhered to by humans (256). Joa nna also indicates that females, without paternal assistance are clearly unable to raise their off springs in the right manner (263). The research also indicates that males and females need to take turns in caring for the child, an aspect that leads to the males having no option, but to care for their child, and not shift their attention to other females. Adultery, in this case, is forbidden. On a lighter note, Jensen indicates that men ought not to be monogamous as males will only maximize their reproductive prowess by assisting their mates in a joint offspring upbringing (80). Breeding with a huge number of females, creates a harsh situation whereby the females cannot defend themselves against competitors of the means of production, with the existing scarce resources. Additionally, males should not be polygamous as the physical environment is too insensitive and callous in a manner that the females cannot provide for their offspring single- handedly. Monogamous men are also instru mental in the planning of breeding dates; thus, ease the
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Project Management - Essay Example For any software project management, phases can be broadly categorized as follows: Basically the task performed for project initiation starts with requirement gathering, then scope determination, resource allocation and project planning. The first task is to gather the customer requirements. As in the present project the challenge for the project manager is to elicit the requirements in such a way that almost all the information regarding needs and wants of the customer could be gathered. Another important area for the project manager is to define the Project scope, as the work required for creating a software product (Website). Project manager needs to define the scope of a software project to ensure that all processes required to complete the project are identified. Scope of the software products (website) for DropBy Caf must include the functions it is expected to perform, its performance criteria and the constraints under which the software is developed. The function and performance requirement of DropBy Caf website must be identified by system analyst. This i ncludes the features that enable the website to modify the user interface or process data in a specific manner. Parameters such as processing speed, data transfer speed and request processing speed will help to measure the performance of the website. To develop the correct website for DropBy Caf, the IT team which consists of 5 member (Project manager, quality manager, system analyst & 2 Progammers) will began to collect the information from the relevant stakeholders i. e. customers as well as owner of DropBy Caf i.e. Nathan Barlow to determine exactly the scope of the software project (website). The project team must interact with Nathan Barlow because he is the owner and has the complete authority. After collecting all the information regarding the required performance, functionality and constrained the team has used a decision tree to analyze and decide to create a feasible solution. In this situation, where DropBy Caf is trying to implement and develop a website project team fou nd that client/server solution was more suitable for implementation at DropBy Caf because it allow different functional areas to connect to central databases, in house made solution which avoid the cost of purchasing and users could easily adapt to the new system. First of all, to collect and extract more and more information, a joint team of system analyst, programmers and project manager himself together must, converse with Nathan Barlow to identify the requirement, solution, alternatives and preliminary set of requirements for the website. A comprehensive list of requirements and concerns help the project manager to determine the scope of the website project effectively. Another technique at this level could be used specifically by quality engineer is quality function deployment (QFD) which includes interviews with Nathan Barlow, observation and surveys together information for scope determination. This QFD technique application starts with identification of client i.e., Nathan B arlow. Next step is to determine the client requirements. Here Nathan Barlow's requirement is to launch a website which must be dynamic and could be modified time to time because he needs to advertise new dishes weekly. The basic requirement of the website is to post the entire
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Stress Essay In closing, Stress is a very serious matter that shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be taken lightly. As stated thereÃ¢â¬â¢s many consequences that can follow a life full of stress, being life damage, failure, and even death. On the other hand thereÃ¢â¬â¢s ways to manage and a get threw stress periods, also being talking to others concerning this problem. Stress is common things in the everyday life of are citizens no matter the race, age, nor place of origin. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a serious matter that should be taken seriously by all and handled at its highest level. Live life as you want to and never let anything stop you from being who you want to be. Stress is never worth losing your life over and will never equal to the joy in life that makes life so much worth living. Situations requiring change or a response is reacted by the bodys action stress. Stress can be positive or negative. How stress is handled is called Fight or Flight. Stress can be positive by keeping one positive and ready to avoid danger. Positive stress can be good by motivating one to take that extra step or to get it over with. Negative stress is when challenges keep coming one after the other without any sort of relaxation inbetween. Feeling overworked can lead to feeling distressed. Launching into overdrive in every situation really makes an impact on the body. Stress affects the emotions, behavior, and physical health in so many ways. Stress affects the emotions where all of a sudden everything feels overwhelming, tense, and on edge. Stress can make people feel irritable and aggravated easily. Emotional stress is almost always self created. Thinking about the situation and just that situation can put strain on the nerves and brain. Other emotional symptoms of stress can be followed by impatience, lonlieness, short temper, restlessness, and moodiness. Theres always the saying dont stress yourself to death. Stress affects the behavior of a person and there actions. Someone may try and block out what is emotionally stressing them by over shopping, over working, or over exercising. Being stressed may cause someone to eat more or less, or lose or gain weight. Using alcohol, ciggarettes or drugs to release whats making you nervous instead of doing something healthy is a behavioral issue. Someone being stressed out from being in constant over drive may start neglecting responsibilites. The emotional systems of feeling irritable and on edge affects the behavior by overreacting on small situations and picking Modern life is fast paced and competitive. Ambition is thebuzzword and everyone is looking for success, money, fame and glory. Today one burns the candle at both ends to live a successful life and it results into severe stress. Stress may be defined as an anxiety syndrome due to work pressure. It also caused due to emotional, physical or mental tensions. The Fear of Failure or being left behind leads to ahectic pace of life which is detrimental to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health. The lure of money and fame also makes one work beyond oneÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity leading to strain and stress. Modern life is pretty mechanical, it leads to lack of exercise which aggravates stress. Couch potato lifestyle or being confined to a chair leads to obesity and stress. The hectic lifestyle leads to imbalanced diets, wrong food habits and endless cups of caffeine or aerated drinks makes one more prone to stress. This in turn leads to ailments like high blood pressure, diabetes, heart problems etc. Stress can be overcome with discipline, yoga and meditation. A proper diet clubbed with regular exercise is needed to minimize the element of stress. As a result, we can conclude that we should put stress in an important position in our lives. It should be in a reasonable and a modest level. Therefore, we can be more aware of the events, the things and the people around us. Without stress, the easiness within our lives would be boring. We can not maintain easy goingness all the time. The life wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be exciting without it. The controversy of this story comes both from the religious aspect and the feminism aspects. It is commonly believed that the story is very stereotypical of the gender differences and goes against feminist perspectives. This is by far the most accepted criticism of the story however some people have a completely opposed view; although usually it is men who disagree with this. At this point I want to make an observation Christianity has incorporated Midsummer into the calendar, observing the feast day of St John the Baptist on June 24. Its thought that this is because Summer Solstice was a celebration of victory of sun and light on the longest day of the year over darkness and death. Its also the alleged date of St Johns death. Interestingly it is directly opposite the feast day of the birth of Christ. St John baptized Jesus and proclaimed him The Saviour, so this particular day is supposed to point to Jesus triumph over death). Summer Solstice is also called Litha or St. Johns Day, and in Pagan times it was an important religious event. Tribes would gather to celebrate the longest day of the year. Whole communities would participate in the celebration, paying homage to nature and the planets. Mother Earth was commemorated as The Goddess, while The God was represented as the Sun King. The festivities were filled with colour yellow for the harvest, green representing nature and blue for the sky. Some of the rituals that took place during Summer Solstice are kept alive today by modern Pagan faiths.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Using Animals Symbolically by Using Poetic Devices I will be discussing the ways in which the poets use animals symbolically by using poetic devices. The three poems that I have chosen are Ã¢â¬Å"The TygerÃ¢â¬ by William Blake, Ã¢â¬Å"The EagleÃ¢â¬ by Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Lastly, Pied Beauty by Gerard Manley Hopkins. Alfred Lord Tennyson has used an image of an eagle to give the reader an image of a man standing on a cliff top waiting for his world to fall around him. He is in a desolate area; there is no society near him Ã¢â¬Å"ringed with the azure world. He standsÃ¢â¬ . He watches the sea pass lower than him his world collapses beneath him n he falls. Ã¢â¬Å"And like a thunderbolt he fallsÃ¢â¬ The sun has symbolized God. And his closeness to the eagle. In this poem, the writer has used alliteration Ã¢â¬Å"lonely landsÃ¢â¬ when he wishes to emphasis the nature, its surroundings and beautyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Followed by short verses. He uses metaphors and long lines to show how strong the bird appears to be. In addition, the eagle waits and watches alone from the mountain highs to catch his pray. in this poem there is a...
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Ques1: Management is what Management does. Justify the statement and explain.Ans:MEANING OF MANAGEMENTÃ¢â¬ËManagement is the executive function that concerns itself with the carrying out of the administrative policies laid down by administration. Management directs the active operations within the enterprise and combines the work of the employees with the available capital equipment and materials to produce an acceptable product. Management also markets the product or service according to the broad policies established by administration. Ã¢â¬Å"The Management also functions, in carrying out the policies of administration, expand as the lower levels of supervision are reached while the administrative function decreases in importanceÃ¢â¬ .Management is what Management DoesThree different steps involved in it. Viz. (1) Formation of policy and its translation into plans; (2) Execution and implementation of plans; and (3) Exercising administrative control over the plans.These three es sential tasks of management may be titled as Ã¢â¬ËPlanning', Implementing' and Ã¢â¬ËControlling'. According to Dr. James Lundy -Ã¢â¬Å"Management is principally a task of planning, co-coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others toward a specific objective. It involves the combining of the traditional factors of production (land, labor and capital) in an optimum manner, paying due attention, of course, to the particular goals of the organization. This definition broadens the scope of management and includes within its orbit, three major management activitiesÃ viz. (a) Planning; (b) Implementing, and (c) Controlling.Planning is the determination of the course of objectives of a business, division or department to achieve maximum profit effectiveness, the establishment of policies and the continuous seeking and finding of new ways to do things. Implementing applies to the doing phases.After plans have been prepared, personnel must be selected and assigned then- jobs; they must be trained and motivated to perform properly. Activities must be implemented in terms of the plans initially developed. This may include selecting personnel,Ã training personnel, Ã motivating personnel,Ã delegation, direction and Ã co-ordinatingControlling refers to the evaluation of the performance of those who are responsible for executing the plans agreed upon. This may include: (i) controlling adherence to plans, and (ii) appraising performance.Characteristics of Management1. Management is that important process the principal elements of which are planning, implementing and controlling.2. Management is an endeavor to achieve the pre-determined objectives.3. For the achievement of the enterprise-goals, management plans, organizes, co-ordinates, directs and controls the group-efforts and hence a group activity.4. Management aims at reaping rich results in economic terms. Management carries with it a major responsibility for creative action. It is no longer considered as passive or a mere adjustment of resources.5. Management also implied skill and experience in getting things done through people. Getting the suitable types of people to execute the operations is the significant aspect of management.6. Management is a science as also an art. As there are definite principles in management, it is an art. Further, it is also a science because by theÃ application of these principles predetermined objectives can be achieved.7. Management is also gradually becoming a profession like other recognized professions.8. The principles of management have universal application. They are not the monopoly of industry alone, but can be applied in any sphere where group effort is required.9. Although management is a scientific method of getting things done through and with the people, yet the identity of the Ã¢â¬ËThinkers' is quite different from the identity of the Ã¢â¬ËDoers'.10. Management is needed at different levels of an organization.11. Ma nagement uses organization for achieving the objectives determined by administration.12. It is not necessary that those who manage may also be the owners of the enterprise.13. Principles of Management are dynamic and not static.Ques 2: Explain the Principles of Management.Ans:MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLESManagerial functions are based on certain principles. Principle is a fundamental truth, which establishes cause, and effect relationship of a function, and theory is a systematic grouping of interrelated principles. The principles of management have a tremendous impact upon the practice of management in increasing the efficiency of the organization. The needs and importance of management principles can be visualized as follows:1. To Increase Efficiency. The established principles of management provide managers guidelines as how they should work in different situations. These principles increase managerial efficiency. Though, there is a serious limitation of management principles, that is, t hese have to be modified according to situations as these deal with human beings of diverse nature, these enable a manager to understand the different situation in a better way and save him from costly trial-and-error method.2. To Crystallize the Nature of Management. Lack of understanding of management principles makes it difficult to analyze the management job andÃ to define the exact scope of managerial functions. Thus, individuals cannot be trained effectively for managerial positions.3. To Carry on Researches. If in any subject certain fundamental principles are developed, the scope and limitations defined, these become the basis for future researches. In the absence of these principles, researches become difficult and future horizons of knowledge cannot be expanded. The recent emphasis on management researches has increased the quantum to knowledge in this field.4. To attain Social Objectives. Management itself is part of the society and it takes the inputs from the society and gives the output to the society. Thus, the standards of the society depend upon the quality of the management. If the management is efficient, the resources of the society are better utilized thereby giving more satisfaction to the society and improving the quality of life of people. In this context, management principles play an important role.Thus, the understanding of management principles enables managers to take a more realistic view of organizational problems and their solution. Management deals with people in the organization, and the structure and behavior of the atom are less complex than the structure and behavior of groups of people. To direct the human behavior for objective achievement, some principles are certainly required.Development of management principles would definitely have an impact on the cultural level of society by increasing efficiency in the use of human as well as material resources. However, managers, while using management principles in practice, s hould check their validity and applicability before use. For this reason, they should be aware of the fundamental nature of management principles.Nature of Management PrinciplesThe following basic nature of management principles should be kept in mind:1. Universality of Principles. Henry Fayol has emphasized that managementÃ principles are universal. These can be applied in different organizations Ã¢â¬â business, government, hospital, military, etc. The basic task before every human organization is to get the desired results through integrated human efforts. Thus, the managers of different managerial levels may use the principles with equal utility. This shows the flexibility of a manager to handle different departments of an organization or the functions of different organizations.2. Dynamic Nature of Principles. Management principles are flexible in nature and change with the changes in the environment in which an organization exists. Others are replacing many of the golden p rinciples of management, which were thought to be very useful at one time, because of changes in the society. Continuous researchers are being carried on to establish principles in the changing society and no principles can be regarded as a final truth. Nothing is permanent in the landslide of management.3. Relative, Not Absolute Principles. Management principles are relative, not absolute and they should be applied according to the need of the organization. Organizations differ in respect of place, time, social, culture, etc. Moreover, individuals working in the same organization also differ. Thus, a particular management principle has different strength in different conditions and the principle should be modified or replaced by another.4. Limitations Due to Human Nature. Management involves the direction of human behavior in the organization. It is also related with other human factors- suppliers, customers, owners, government, etc. The complex nature of human behavior has conside rably affected the progress of management principles. The principles of other disciplines dealing with human nature such as psychology, sociology, anthropology should also be taken into account.Ques 5: Explain the features of an open door organization.Ans:Organization provides the structure, the frame on which rests the management of the enterprise. Like all structures, it upholds the management functions, in their totality and interrelationship, aiding their movement to the appointed goal.PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATIONThere are certain basic principles of an organization structure are :(i) It should reflect adequately a virile awareness of the dynamic goal of the enterprise.(ii) It should reflect adequate decentralization(iii) The unity of command and line of responsibility should be clear.(iv) The channel of communication should be free, easy and logical.(v) The span of control should be legitimate (not too wide nor too narrow) without split in the line of control.(vi) The functional levels in the Organization chart should be armed with proper (-delegated) authority, matching their task and responsibility.(vii) The levels in the Chart (the nodes in the Organization net) should represent homogenous cohesive units of functions.(viii) The Chart should avoid overlapping of functions and authority.(ix) The channels of communication-vertically and horizontally-should be well laid out.(x) The functional aims of the departments (branches) at different levels should be drawn up and reflected with precision.(xi) The hierarchical position of the staff functional levels and their structural relationship with the line management levels should be stated without ambiguity.The organizational tree like structure has properties of a living organism. As the branches of a tree stem from the trunk and the twigs spring from the branches, and every branch and twig draw succor from the roots of the main tree, so in an enterprise the Chief Executive is the main spring of leadership. The other levels provide the feedback and the reciprocal team support. The process is a two-way one.ORGANIZATION DYNAMICS Ã¢â¬â CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMSManagement is a system; organization is the frame that upholds the system. Enterprise organization must share these features, which are common to all living units. It must be responsive to impulses, both within its own system and from the wider social system outside. A common hazard (and experience) in an organizational set up is that it tends to degenerate into a stereotype- a stale, repetitive, dead process losing the quality of life. Divide organizational into two types:(a) open door organization,(b) closed door organization.An open door organization is one that incorporates the mechanism of change. The business situation and the problems that confront a manager are in a state of flux.Features of an Open Door Organization(1) An open door organization is task oriented. The accountability is clearly defined.(2) The authority (within the related functional area) is also absolute (or nearly so) matching the absolute character of the accountability.(3) Consultations are minimum and are not compulsive; the executive is free to consult and communicate (or otherwise) so long as he performs and delivers the objective.(4) Rules and procedures exist but only as guides- the executives (within their sphere of responsibilities) having wide freedom of discretion to depart from the rules within the periphery of the broad corporate policies.(5) The accountability is clear-cut; objective is verifiable- in terms of cost, output target, time and profit. The means are (relatively) unimportant so long as the end is achieved.(6) The managerial behavior is highly flexible bending with lithe suppleness to the internal shifts in conditions and external maneuvers of the environmental zone of contract.Ques6. Explain the different approaches to leadership and its role in management.Ans:Leadership is interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed, through the communication process toward the attainment of a specialized goal or goals (emphasis ours). In the terms of Harold Koontz, leadership is influencing people to follow the achievement of a common goal. The two common elements in all these perceptions of leadership are:(i) Influencing People(ii) To pursue a common goal.The Trait ApproachTraits are innate, inherent personal qualities. It follows that (by this approach) if a leader is seen to possess certain traits, his leadership index can be read (almost) off a leadership meter. Three necessary and sufficient conditions which must be satisfied if traits should be unique determinants of the leadership index. These may be summarized thus:(i) The trait quality should follow a descending order as one traverses from the highest (top executives in leadership position) to the lowest (employees) levels of the enterprise system.(ii) There must be a high correlation between the level of a manager's traits and the level of his success.(iii) The correlation between success (achievement) and traits should be higher as one goes up the management hierarchy from bottom (employees) level upward to top executive levels.Common elements of leadership as observed from different surveys and investigations are:(a) Intelligence. (b) Confidence. (c) Initiative. (d) Urge for achievement. (e) Strong power need.Attitude Criterion Approach to LeadershipThe leader-attitude approach to leadership studies registers and appraises the variables in terms of attitudes (orientation to or concern from) conditioning leadership behavior and effectiveness. Studies defined two variables (attitudes) which were termed employees orientation and production orientation. A parallel set of concepts was evolved by Darwin as a result of a number of research studies. They identified the aim of a group as a composite of two elements (group dynamics).(i) Achieving a group goal.(ii) Service of the group itself.The goal-oriented ma nager will set tasks, improve techniques and productivity and structure his activities toward the group goal. The manager, on the other hand, who concentrates on group service and group maintenance, will be relations oriented, with concern for people, cultivating popular participation, fostering and trusting informal group behaviour, trustful and communicative.Still another parallel concept may be observed under what may be styled Authoritarian Democratic behaviour tapering off into the laissez faire leadership style. In terms of the group dynamics phraseology (discussed above), authoritarian leader style is set parallel to achieving the group goal as against group maintenance or service which approximates to the democratic leader style. The authoritarian leader will decide and tell his followers what to do; the democratic leaders will opt for a participative style of decision making.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the process of achieving and maintaining that state. Cleanliness may be endowed with a moral quality, as indicated by the aphorism Ã¢â¬Å"cleanliness is next to godliness, and may be regarded as contributing to other ideals such as health and beauty. In emphasizing an ongoing procedure or set of habits for the purpose of maintenance and prevention, the concept of cleanliness differs from purity which is a physical, moral, or ritual state of freedom from pollutants. Whereas purity is usually a quality of an individual or substance, cleanliness has a social dimension, or implies a system of interactions. Ã¢â¬Å"Cleanliness,Ã¢â¬ observedJacob Burckhardt, Ã¢â¬Å"is indispensable to our modern notion of social perfection.Ã¢â¬  A household or workplace may be said to exhibit cleanliness, but not ordinarily purity; cleanliness also would be a characteristic of the people who maintain cleanness or preven t dirtying. On a practical level, cleanliness is thus related to hygiene and disease prevention. Washing is one way of achieving physical cleanliness, usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent. Procedures of cleanliness are of utmost importance in many forms of manufacturing. As an assertion of moral superiority or respectability, cleanliness has played a role in establishing cultural values in relation to social class, humanitarianism, and cultural imperialism. It is important to maintain a standard of cleanliness in your room at all times. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t keep your room up to standards then you are facing many possible problems. If you leave clothes that are to be worn the next day on the floor then you are getting them more dirty than they already were. This can cause you to get sick from the dead skin cells, dirt, grime, and other things that are on your floor. If the clothing worn is not often washed, and frequently aired, it becomes filthy with impurities which are thrown off from the body by sensible and insensible perspiration. And if the garments worn are not frequently cleansed from these impurities, the pores of the skin absorb again the waste matter thrown off. The impurities of the body, if not allowed to escape, are taken back into the blood, and forced upon the internal organs. This then can lead to fevers and then possibly into harmfulÃ diseases. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the standards then you have many negative aspects that can cause more problems in the future. Besides your clothing you should also always wash your hands every time you use the bathroom, before and after meals, and anytime they are dirty. This will help keep some diseases from your health because your hands are the dirtiest part of your body and if you put them on food that you put into your mouth you could get very sick. Another reason why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to keep your room clean is if you have a dust allergy. Within your room dust mounts up incredibly quickly and that can leave an allergy sufferer in a lot of distress. So you need to clean to get rid of the dust. Another example could be if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t clean up your room and bits of food were left everywhere going moldy. It would attract pests into the room which could potentially give you health problems as pests usually are dirty and they can pass various things onto you. Seeing as germs and parasites like to hide in unclean places, cleanliness is very important.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Health Care Economics Essays Health Care Economics Paper Health Care Economics Paper Almost all current factors influencing health care, such as, increasing medical care service demand, pharmaceutical prices, medical care organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ competition and medical care expertsÃ¢â¬â¢ remuneration, Ã involve economics. Absence of comprehension regarding fundamental economic standards leads to erroneous decision-making by making persons develop opinions on the basis of feelings and feelings as opposed to logical economic standards (Schafermeyer, 2000). The health care structure in America to some extent represents the principles, aims, and beliefs found in free-market industrialist financial systems governed by contention. PhysiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ competition occurs locally for principal care doctors and amongst specialists on broader geographical extents. Medical doctors and associated practitioners also do compete, for instance, between optometrists and ophthalmologists as well as between psychologists and psychiatrists. Administered care arrangements depict lesser medical care service (tests and hospitals) utilization. Physician conduct is one factor affecting medical care and thus competition as well occurs in location, professional conduct plus waiting duration. The conduct of big urban plastic surgeons, for instance is significantly different compared to country pediatriciansÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, demeanor is linked with health care options, costs, payments, and services. Demeanor is as well linked to state public medical care funding and physician education (Fisher, 2006). The economic law that states that a demand curve slopes downwards is probably the most fundamental of economic principles. It implies that demanded quantity decreases with increasing commodity prices. Demand curves have commodity prices on the perpendicular axes, commodity quantities on horizontal axes, and negatively inclined lines illustrating the relationship between the two entities. Other factors influence commodity demand with Income being probably the most apparent factor in general. Regarding health care, another key aspect is personsÃ¢â¬â¢ health condition. Reduced health Care is demanded when health conditions improve. Elevated revenue moves demand curves away from the origins for normal commodities, and reverses to the origins for inferior commodities. Improved health moves demand curves back inwards (Fisher, 2006). Reports regarding a vicious fresh influenza will lead to increased flu medication demand, thus making demand curves shift outwards. This implies that increased flu medication is needed compared to previous figures for every price. Flu medication demand also demonstrates seasonal patterns by moving outwards with the approach of fu periods. Alternatively, many health servicesÃ¢â¬â¢ demand curves sift outwards with Age. Outward demand curve movement implies that, for whatever price stage, there is increased demand following shifts as compared to demand levels at such prices prior to the movement. Demand curves shift as aÃ reaction to entities different from price, or, as a reaction to factors influencing demand that are not explicitly represented on a single of the graph axes. Such movement is referred to as demand change. Following price change, movement is made from a single demand curve point to a different same curve point. This implies movement happens the length of such curve, however, the curve position, in relation to axes, remains constant. Such an alteration is called demanded quantity change. Therefore, price changes leads to demanded quantity changes and changes in other factors, causing demand curve shifts, leads to demand alteration. Learning the behavior of demand when one decisive factor is altered is vital. Elasticity is a standard responsiveness measure. Commodity price demand elasticity is calculated as a proportional alteration in demanded quantity divided by the proportional price alteration that led to the demanded quantity modification. Since demanded quantity and price are always inversely proportional, own-price demand elasticity always is negative. A minus (-) 3 elasticity implies that a 1% price elevation leads to a 3% demanded quantity reduction (Greenberg, 2002). Demand is regarded as being elastic when own-price demand elasticity is bigger than 1 in total values. Alternatively, when own-price demand elasticity is smaller than 1 in complete value, such demand is regarded as being inelastic. With demand elasticity amounting to minus (-) 1, such demand curves are said to depict unit elasticity. Linear demand curves, having constant curve slopes, have elasticity changing with movement along the demand curves. With extremely low prices, demand becomes inelastic; high prices depict elastic demand. Starting with extremely reduced prices, thus large demanded quantities, and raising such prices, shifting upwards and towards the left along demand curves, demand elasticity progressively shifts from inelastic towards elastic, intersecting at the curve midpoint. Such pointÃ¢â¬â¢ demand elasticity becomes unitary (Ferguson, 2002). Calculated commodity demand elasticity thus depends on the prices where such calculation was done. High prices lead to increased demand elasticity, although commodity nature remains constant. However, Consumer reactions to price alteration do change; increasing prices makes consumers increasingly responsive to additional alterations. Demand elasticity also influences commodity nature. General doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ services demand is very elastic (approximately -0.2) in America. Demand for a specific doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s services is much more, (approximately -3.0). The disparity arises due to the fact that for particular physician services, generally additional alternative supply sources are available, as compared to general physician services. Visit demand generally is quite inelastic, however specific physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s visit demand is somewhat extra elastic owing to presence of different supply sources like walk-in hospitals and crisis rooms (Fisher, 2006). User charges imposed on every office-category visits have comparatively little influence on demanded quantity, however, charges imposed on office-category visits to crisis rooms have greatly bigger influence as regards minimizing demanded quantity since3 it prompts persons to adjust from looking for assistance at crisis rooms and seek such from different sources.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
How to Start an Academic Club in School For students planning to apply to a selective college, membership in an academic club is a must. College officials will be looking for activities that make you stand out, and club membership is an important addition to your record. This doesnt mean you will have to feign interest in an organization that already exists. If you share a strong interest in a hobby or subject with several friends or fellow students, you may want to consider forming a new club. By forming an official organization that really interests you, you are demonstrating true leadership qualities. Wanting to take on the role of a leader is only the first step. You need to find a purpose or theme that will engage you and others. If you have a hobby or interest that you know enough other students share, go for it! Or maybe there is a cause you want to help. You could start a club that helps keep the natural spaces (like parks, rivers, woods, etc.) clean and safe. And once you establish a club around a topic or activity you love, you are sure to stay more engaged. You might receive the added honor of recognition from the public and/or school officials who appreciate your initiative. So how should you go about this? If you are starting a club at school, you may want a teacher to serve as advisor as a first step. You may need a teacher or coach just to gain permission for using school facilities.The teacher or advisor may be temporary. Sometimes, a teacher will start the first meeting and encourage students to follow through with organization.The most important requirements for starting a successful club are interest and commitment.Once you know you have a team willing to commit to a regular meeting time and a cause, you can manage the rest with ease.Next you will need clear organization. Structure will keep the club together in slow times (like during a few heavy months of heavy homework and testing) or in the event of a disagreement. Steps to Forming a Club Appointment of a temporary chairman or president. At first you will need to assign a temporary leader who will preside over the drive to form the club. This may or may not be the person who serves as permanent chairman or president.Election of temporary officers. The members should discuss which office appointments are necessary for your club. Decide whether you want a president or chairman; whether you want a vice president; whether you need a treasurer; and whether you need someone to keep the minutes of each meeting.Preparation of constitution, mission statement, or rules. Decide upon a committee to write a constitution or rule booklet.Register club. You may need to register with your school if you plan to hold meetings there.Adoption of constitution or rules. Once a constitution is written to everyones satisfaction, you will vote to adopt the constitution.Election of permanent officers. At this time you can decide if your club has enough officer positions, or if you need to add s ome positions. Club Positions Some of the positions you should considered are: President: Leads meetingsVice president: Plans eventsSecretary: Records and reads minutesTreasurer: Handles fundsHistorian: Keeps a picture book and notesPublicity Officer: Makes and distributes flyers, postersWeb master: Maintains web site General Order of a Meeting You can use these steps as a guideline for your meetings. Your specific style can be less formal, or even more formal, according to your goals and tastes. Call to order by the president or chairmanReading and approval of the minutes from the previous meetingDiscussion of old businessDiscussion of new businessProgramAdjournment Things to consider When to meet and how oftenHow many members you can handleHow much funding you will needWays to raise moneyWhether or not to have club duesActivities for everyone to participate in Finally, you will want to make sure that the club you choose to create involves an activity or a cause that you really feel comfortable with. You will be spending a lot of time on this venture in the first year.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Discuss the role of perceptions of 'otherness' in 'ethnic cleansing' - Essay Example In most cases, this includes dehumanizing that culture as well. The concept of the Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ is central to the development of enough hatred to believe that ethnic cleansing is not only necessary, but feasible for one set of humans to commit against another. In order to create a belief system that can include ethnic cleansing as a solution for conflicts between cultures, a sense of the Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ must be developed so that a belief in the dehumanization of the opposing culture diminishes any sense of committing murder against a fellow human being. According to Dirven, ethnic cleansing comes as a result of Ã¢â¬Å"abuses of cognitive processes (that) lead to atrocities against humanity beyond the imagination of most of usÃ¢â¬ (115). Cognitive semantics and the use of external symbols to create unity are also used in order to create a sense of the Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢. Those who are unified under a focused set of beliefs use the concept of those who are outside of those beliefs to create the sense of the Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢, the group that does not identify with the same belief systems. Dirven goes on to say that Ã¢â¬Å"Features or attributes of the so-called Ã¢â¬ËoutsidersÃ¢â¬â¢ may then be made cognitively significant through exaggerated contrast to the valued manners or behaviours of the newly identified Ã¢â¬ËinsideÃ¢â¬â¢ groupÃ¢â¬ (114). ... They have an overpowering emotional and non-rational qualityÃ¢â¬ . The nature of the need to belong is balanced by the need to identify those who do not belong. It is the nature of the individual to bond and create mutual Ã¢â¬ËothersÃ¢â¬â¢ that provide contrast to the superiority of their own cultural group. In doing this, the defined characteristics of the Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ provide support for why a group will find reasons to isolate away from other groups and create conflict to assert their continued superiority. These methods can be varied, but one of the worst is through the policies that involve ethnic cleansing. Ethnic cleansing involves two different concepts. Ethnicity traits that identify a group are combined with cultural traits. Groups are identified by both their physical manifestations of difference and their cultural manifestations through systems of belief. The difference between ethnicity and culture can be defined by the idea that one is involuntary and the other is voluntary. One is through physical attributes that are not a matter of control or choice. The other is through choosing to bond with others in a formed group (Cohen and Stone 67). The differences between the two are cause for different types of conflict and the line is not always considered clearly drawn. Therefore, if a person of certain ethnic attributes joins a culture that no longer associates them with the belief systems of their ethnic cultural group, this may not prevent them from being included. Joining a cultural group without ethnic markers that identify an individual with that group will also not create a safe place for an individual. The example
Friday, November 1, 2019
How did the modern states of Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon come into being, and what role did Britain and France play in their formation - Research Paper Example On the other hand, the French controlled Ottoman Syria now the modern Syria2. With the formation of these territories after the war, the French and the British took over them and ensured that they became formal by the League of Nations systems of mandate. In this case, the French were assigned the Syria mandate by 19233. The mandate included the present-day Lebanon and the modern Syria. On its part, the British got Southern Iran and Jordan from Baghdad to Basra. However, the French later on gave up the Northern part of Iran in exchange for oil revenues at 2 percent. Through the mandate created, it is quite evident that France and Britain played significant roles in the formation of the modern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan after the war. The drawing of the four states was primarily based on the exploitation of diverse sectarian make