Monday, September 30, 2019
The reason of why I decided to go back to school and obtain my Bachelor Degree has never been anything out of the ordinary. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, I see many working adults pursuing their degrees to obtain security and self-fulfillment. While others are looking for the advancement in pay and position in their current or new job. There are even those who need to gain more confidence in their skills to do a good job for their company and they feel that by getting a degree, they can achieve this goal. All of them pertain to me. Especially to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s current economy, I strongly feel that there is a great advantage to having a degree versus to not having one when it comes to searching for a job. More and more each year, I see new programs for education that are designed for working adults. If there were no real demand for these programs, I believe they would not exist. But that demand is real. There is a larger competitive environment in the work force now then there was a few years ago. With many new and fresh graduates coming out of college, I feel the pressure to increase my credentials to be able to compete. Even though I have built my experience through years of on the job education, I feel that by obtaining a graduate or even undergraduate degree is the only way to secure my position against the growing population of new graduates. I believe that you must continue updating your skills to keep up with this very competitive market. Then, there are those current working adults who are already established in their field, but would like to find a way to increase their potential of getting a raise or promotion. By obtaining a degree, this can show the managers how much value of an employee you are to the company. To have the qualifications and experience can give you a better success rate of getting the raise or promotion that you would ask for. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a way of selling yourself and your worth. With a degree, you just are more armed to the task of requesting for an advancement. Once I have obtained my degree, I can then see myself seriously requesting for an advance of my pay and position from my manager. Most importantly is the ability to feel confident in doing your job and toÃ have that credential to show people. There were many projects that I have been involved in that required myself to learn new skills. One example was learning how to program in Visual Basic 6 to create an interface GUI for one of our robot systems. Another accomplishment that I achieved was generating a database for system files used by our integration department. In almost each project, there were other managers involved besides my own manager. And each one had their doubts in my ability to succeed in the project. I have yet to fail, but each time a new project is started, these doubts from these managers come along with them. Even though I have five-years of experience in my field, I can see that it is harder to prove your ability in your skills with out a four-year degree. It is also much harder to have the confidence in yourself when there are others that lack that confidence in you. That is why I can se e by obtaining a degree can benefit me in many ways besides security and advancement in pay and position. There are times that I try to imagine how different it would be one I have earned my degree. And each time all I can imagine are anything but positive results. Sure, there are concerns and sacrifices that I would need to make down the road. Sacrifice like time. Time with my family and time for myself. But what is a couple of years of sacrifice compared to a lifetime of advancement? I once read an article about a successful businessman and how he achieved his goals by following one philosophy he recited to himself everyday. He believed the reward in terms of happiness is directly proportional to the sacrifice that each one makes. Great philosophy. And I try to live it everyday.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5. What is CoachÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to compete in the ladies handbag and leather accessories industry? Has the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive strategy yielded a sustainable competitive advantage? If so, has that advantage translated into superior financial and market performance? A business strategy refers to the means by which it sets out to achieve its desired objectives and goals. CoachÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive strategy deals exclusively with managementÃ¢â¬â¢s game plan for competing successfully and securing a competitive advantage over rivals Michael Kors, Salvatore Ferragamo, Prada, Giorgio Armani, Dolce & Gabbana, and Versace. The different types of strategies used by these companies include, but are not limited to, low-cost provider strategies, differentiation strategies, focused low-cost and differentiation strategies, and best-cost provider strategies. Coach Inc. Ã¢â¬â¢s strategy that created the accessible luxury market in ladies handbags made it among the best-known luxury brands in North America and Asia and had allowed its sales to grow at an annual rate of 20 percent between 2000 and 2011, reaching $4. 2 billion. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy focuses on five key initiatives. First, Coach built a market share in North America by 15 new full- price retail stores and 25 factory outlets. They have built a market share in Japan through the addition of 15 new locations. Coach seeks to raise brand awareness and build share in underpenetrated markets, including Europe and South America, and Asia, with 30 new locations planned in the region. It also looks to increase sales of products targeted towards men by offering dual gender lines. Lastly, Coach raised brand awareness and built market share through coach. com, global e-commerce sites, and social networking initiatives. Coach Inc. implements various advertising strategies, marketing strategies, sourcing strategies, and differentiation strategies, etc. CoachÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy, which focused on matching key luxury rivals in quality and styling while beating them on price by 50 percent or more, yielded a competitive advantage in attracting middle-income consumers desiring the taste of luxury, but also affluent and wealthy consumers with the means to spend more money. Another distinctive element was its multichannel distribution model, which included indirect wholesale sales to third-party retailers but focused primarily on direct-to-consumer sales. Coach appears to be using the best-cost provider strategy because it gives customers more value for their money while satisfying buyer expectations on key quality features, performance and service attributes. For example Coach uses attractive pricing to enable it to appeal to consumers who would not normally consider luxury brands, while the quality and styling of its products were sufficient to satisfy luxury consumers. Coach has the ability to do this through its factory outlet stores and its prices are way below the price of its competitors. Coach also displays differentiation by offering distinctive, easily recognizable luxury products that are extremely well made and provide excellent value. Coach has a unique approach to its differentiation. Each quarter, major consumer research is undertaken to define product trends, selection, and consumer desires. Monthly product launches enhance the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s voguish image and give consumers reason to make purchases. They also use frequent product introductions because consumers always want the newest items and fashions. Coach sought to make consumer service experience an additional differentiating factor. It has agreed to refurbish or replace damaged handbags, regardless of the age of the bag. Through the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Special Request, customers were allowed to order merchandise for home delivery. Overall Coach displays a great mix of low cost and differentiation. A sustainable competitive advantage refers to a long-term competitive advantage that is not easily duplicable or surpassable by the competitors. CoachÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage has proven to yield a sustainable competitive advantage. When it comes to anticipating fashion trends, Coach has 1 / 3 proven to be successful. Each year Coach interviews its customers through Internet questionnaires, phone surveys, and face-to-face encounters with shoppers at its stores. Such intense market research has helped Coach executives spot trends well before its competitors. This in turn has helped it to extend the brand far beyond the leather bags that long were its trademark and into watches, accessories, cosmetic cases, key fobs, belts, electronic accessories, gloves, hats, scarves, business cases, luggage, eyewear, fragrance, and clothing. According to the case study and further research, sales have grown an average of 29% over each of the past three years, fueling a strong 63% averaged return on invested capital during the same period. Currently Coach is a leading American marketer of fine accessories and gifts for women and men. Its sustainable competitive advantage is a result of employee engagement, supply chain capabilities, environmental conservation, and community. Coach seeks to hire and train the best employees in a supportive and engaging environment. Coach collaborates with their raw material suppliers and manufacturing partners. Coach continues to improve the way it makes it products in order to protect the resources of the environment. Coach also supports the local communities in which they operate. Results show that Coach has increased its net sales from $3,230,468 to $4,158,507, its market share increased by nearly 6%, and its common stock price is $60, which is a result of superior financial and market performance. 6. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Coach Inc.? What competencies and capabilities does it have that its chief rivals donÃ¢â¬â¢t have? What new market opportunities does Coach have? What threats do you see to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future well being? Coach has many strengths and weaknesses. Coach strengths include its wide range of accessories such as its handbags, watches, accessories, cosmetic cases, key fobs, belts, electronic accessories, gloves, hats, scarves, business cases, luggage, eyewear, fragrance, and clothing. It is the leading luxury leather goods company in the United States, with expansion in Japan, China, and Asia. Coach has developed a respected reputation by providing their customers with quality products and its 70+ years of being in business. They do a great job of advertising through press releases, catalogs, internet, and shopping centers. Coach has a larger range of pricing which attracts lower income consumers and wealthier consumers. They also allow their products to be sold at stores (department and full price stores) and online. Coach prides themselves on creating customer value. However, Coach also displays weaknesses as well. They have a limited selection for men and a poor inventory turnover rate. Coach has no direct announcements to the public about the promotion of new products. Their new products first sell at full price which keeps the lower income consumers away. This could lead to the problem of selling more at their outlet stores versus their full price stores. Currently Coach relies on the United States, Japan, and Canada for the majority of its sales by not fully expanding into other countries. A core competency refers to a defining capability or advantage that distinguishes an enterprise from its competitors. Coach believes that external coaching and leadership workshops are powerful tools in increasing a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness and insight on their management approach, which leads to core competencies and capabilities. Coach has the skill and expertise to create unique and differentiated luxury items at a lower cost than its competitors. It also has valuable physical assets, human assets, organizational assets, intangible assets, and alliances and cooperative ventures. All of these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, hard to copy, and non-substitutable. Some of the defining characteristics that distinguish Coach from its competitors include its wide selection of luxury items, its low cost strategy, store location (outlet and full price), advertising, online shopping, meeting customer desires, superior value and quality, its direct-to-consumer channels and indirect channels, 970 wholesale locations in the United States and Canada, specialty retailers in 18 countries, and its relationships with consumers (customer loyalty). CoachÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy, which focused on matching key luxury rivals in quality and styling while beating them on price by 50 percent or more, yielded a competitive advantage in attracting middle-income consumers desiring the taste of luxury, but also affluent and wealthy consumers with the means to spend more money. Another 2 / 3 distinctive element was its multichannel distribution model, which included indirect wholesale sales to third-party retailers but focused primarily on direct-to-consumer sales. Coach has many new opportunities in its market of luxury goods. It has a high potential for increased sales with new product lines. The promotion in other countries can bring awareness to the brand and company. Its pricing can attract more customers because of the lower priced items compared to its competitors. Its online option of purchasing will increase as technology increases. Coach also has the opportunity to increase the number of stores in North America, expand stores in other countries, and use its flexible dependency on suppliers. However, Coach also faces numerous threats. There is always the threat of rivalry, competition, and substitutes in the luxury market. One of the major threats is counterfeit products and the economic downturn in the United States. Young adults and teens often go through phases of fashion and may later chose a different brand other than Coach. Coach faces exchange rate risks if they enter new foreign markets. Lastly there is a threat of not having enough stores around the world which could hurt the consumer market. These threats could hurt the well-being of the company, but its strengths and opportunities seem to outweigh them for the time being.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The Clash Of Civilization In The Arab World - Research Paper Example Chiozza attempts to test the truth in clash of civilization by forming various hypotheses (714). Furthermore, Wei (p.40) prevents confusion between culture and civilization, two words used interchangeable with different meanings; while Crittenden provides a deeper analysis of the causes of the struggle in Syria and gives a different view from (Manfreda). Al-Radhan (1) analyses the ways differing civilizations can interact, and how the western civilizations should attribute is origin to Arab culture and civilization. This study seeks to analyze, examine and cross-examine clash of civilization in the contemporary culture to determine relevance of such a theory. Ruan provides a historical context between civilization and culture and states that the two words are often used interchangeably. This outlines a comparison between a long service definition of civilization and culture alongside a geographical locus. Through this statement, civilizations are likely to arise in a given geographic al location, where they share similar cultural values. Culture emerged at earlier stages of human interactions and laid the foundation for civilization to take place. Civilization is based on a number of relationships including history, religion, language and tradition, and all these relationships are from a cultural background of a given society in specific geographical locations. The western civilization is incorporated in areas like Eastern Europe, Latin America whose cultures closely resemble each other, while Middle East cultures also resemble. States create strong relationships with others that seem to sympathize with their cultural ideologies, values and interest. With two civilizations contrasting, the western modern civilization will have to accommodate nonwestern modern civilizations, whose cultures differ in many ways. There is conflict between civilizations because of the misconceptions values, and achievement of different cultures especially the West and Middle East (Al -Rodhan 3). This implies that cultural transmission is the key to the development of modern civilizations. Cultural differences have played an important role in the transmission of ideas, and development of key institutions such as science, philosophy, finance and commerce. Civilizations have borrowed ideologies from different cultures, as Al-Rodhan continues to state that the Arab world played an important role in the western civilization (3). The western civilization can attribute the role of the Arab culture in the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment period in Europe and America. Civilization is the highest form of cultural grouping and broadest level of culture that distinguishes two people, and provides some major classifications of civilizations in the contemporary world. In addition, he provides these classifications according to a geographical grouping, and according to differing cultural ideologies. According to the geographical groups, there are eight major civiliza tions that arise in the contemporary world including; western, Confucius, Japanese, Islamic, Hinduism, Slavic, orthodox, Latin America, and African civilizations. A greater classification is by differing cultural ideologies which give rise to two major civilizations, which Huntington feels conflict in the contemporary society. These are the western civil
Friday, September 27, 2019
Mens Rea - Personal Statement Example He was perhaps in his early thirties medium height and bearded face. What stood out to me at the moment was that he wore well fitted tan suit. I presumed that he was a business man of some sort. Like most in this particular coffee shop, he sat on his chair busily minding his lap top and scribbling on his note pad. He next began talking to himself. I privately concluded that he was a journalist preparing for an interview. My notion was dashed when I noticed a bewildered expression cross his features. He glanced around, panic stricken with eyes darting about. It was almost as if he did not realize where he was. I spent a minute watching him look about like a caged animal and found myself compelled to assist him. Standing with latte in hand, I strode over to assist and en route asked "Are you ok" "Do you need help with something" He stood, the same animal, now cowering but yelling "YOU'RE TRESPASSING, YOU'RE IN MY SPACE". I quickly apologized and left the caf. I consoled myself noting that this man in the nice suit needed some serious couch time. Maybe he was in the middle of a panic attack, I surmised. Yet I wondered was I trespassing If a police officer had been in the caf, would I have been charged I was only trying to help so why did he use that specific legal termtrespassing. Determined to not have my day ruined, I chalked up the experience to a gross misunderstanding by a tortured soul and proceeded about my business. Putting the episode behind me I strolled south on Boston street when suddenly some greenish hued paper caught my eye. To my delight there was a five dollar bill lying on the ground utterly abandoned. I took a moment and looked around me to see if perhaps there was someone searching for it. Nope, the money was mine. I smiled knowing that karma was now on my side and leaned down to pick it up. Suddenly, this screeching voice hurled an accusation and I found myself confronted by flip flops commandeered by toes in desperate need of a pedicure. "You took my Money"!!! My stomach lurched, not again! What is going on today I rose to a tall woman maybe in her middle twenties with black hair wearing blue short shorts and a tank top and flip flops standing there. Setting aside for a moment the fact that she had absolutely no business wearing short shorts, I was being yelled at by this crazy woman with her perfectly lacquered talons waving in my face. Transfixed and trapped by the talons, I quickly returned the five dollars to her muttering an apology. I didn't want any trouble. The woman screamed, "You're lucky you gave it back, I can still call the cops!" I sensed her aggression and replied with, "so sorry ma'am". I could not believe this was happening. If I didn't know better I'd swear I was on candid camera. I wondered what was happening and praying that it would change. I turned around to make my exit and trotted towards the park. It's peaceful there, I concluded. Eyes forward because now I am convinced that the whole town thinks that I am a criminal and I am horrified to see the looks on their faces, I continue my trot. I remind myself that the park is a safe place, a happy place, a peaceful place. Yes, only good things happen in the park and dammit I left my latte back with Ms. Shorty shorts. Should I get another Nah, better just get to the park. I had about three more blocks to go before I reached the park. The whole time I kept repeating positive affirmations
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The U.N Humanitarian intervention in Syria PART 2 - Case Study Example Article 1 and 2 of the Charter of the United Nations outlines the importance of recognizing the sovereignty of nations and their self-determinacy (Repertoire of the practice of the security council 1). The charter prohibits member states from forcefully intervening in the internal affairs of other states unless they either successfully seek the approval of the UN Security Council or react to protect their borders from external forces. This has played a major role in the humanitarian intervention, or lack of, in Syria. It has offered an obstacle for any nation willing to intervene in order to end the current crisis present in Syria. This restriction also covers the establishment of no fly zones and providing weapons to the rebel forces in Syria (United Nations 1). It is believed that powerful nations with permanent seats in the Security Council have used this provision to scuttle any attempt of intervention in Syria with Russia and China being the key accused. When the allegations of the use of chemical weapons by the government of Syrian on civilians and rebels in the region of Ghouta on 19 March 2013 surfaced, the United Nations embarked on a fact finding mission and presented a damning report that highlighted the use of sarin on civilians (United Nations 1). Consequently, the UN Security Council during its sittings showed a rare unity and passed Resolution 2118 in an attempt to ensure that the use of chemical weapons on civilians is not repeated. The resolutions demanded the destruction of the chemical weapons and prohibited the manufacture, accumulation and transfer of chemical weapons by Syria. Failure to adhere to the conditions set, the Security Council may impose penalties on Syria as per Chapter VII of the UN Charter (Repertoire of the practice of the Security Council 1). The United Nations, together with the League of Arab States, has played a key role in the search of a peaceful political solution in Syria.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Ethics and social responsibility and its affect on organization - Essay Example Ethics and social responsibility and its affect on organization A Business enterprise is portrayed as an entity doing business to make a profit and forms an integral part of the community, society and market. The social responsibilities of a business are to improve performance, make profits and fulfilling the expectation of its stakeholders. Responsible business addresses the issue on ethics and social responsibility which is faced almost every day in the economy. Programs on business ethics provides the business with management and leadership practices helps in complying with the rule and regulation, minimizing the risk and bring value to the stakeholders (ITA, n.d, p.31). Thus the purpose of the report is to state the benefits of adopting the ethical and social responsibility practices in businesses. The main idea behind the report is to analyze the claim that by practicing ethical and social responsibility in business leads to increase in efficiency in the work place. Practice of ethics leads to good reputation of the company and the effect that ethical and social responsibilities have on the relationship with employees, customers and investors. The scenario talks about being ethical in business and practicing the habit of social responsibilities. The audience constitute of the CEO of the company, the HR, marketing manager, operation manager and also the employees. This is because the field of business ethics has changed as firms had recognized the benefits of conducting ethical conduct. Ethics contributes to firmÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment towards its employee, customerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction and also towards the investors. It is necessary to practice ethics as most of the organization today aims to create a core competency against its competitors by way of practicing ethics and social responsibility. Organization with unethical practices are usually not looked a strong business organization and investors and customers often hesitate to invest in such organizations. Therefore organization with ethical value often tends to stay ahead from the unethical firms. Even employees would deliver high performance when they work in a good cor porate culture which ultimately leads to the success of the firm. Body Present the Information gathered Ethics and social responsibilities help the organization to increase efficiency. Managers always try to make the best use of the resources in order to increase the level at which organization perform. Pressure to increase performance is often regarded as healthy as it allows managers to question the way organization works and thus bring changes by practicing social responsibilities and ethicality (Jones, 2009, p.39). Business ethics and social responsibility can affect the reputation of the company. Practice of ethics can help in building reputation among employee, the customers, stakeholders and the general public (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2008, p.25). Business ethics
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Nursing theory, and application to practice - Essay Example Research shows (Snyder, Kessler, Hitchings, et.al., 2007), that specific actions made by nursing rounds reduced frequency of call lights and falls as well as created increased satisfaction with the nursing care. However, to reap these benefits meant hourly rounds by the staff. The study by Snyder et.al. (2007) addressed pain, position, and personal needs done by hourly rounding. They found a decrease in call lights and falls and an increase in patient satisfaction. Falls were decreased significantly and overall patient satisfaction went from the 3rd quartile to the 1st. This was further supported by a study done by Orr, Tranum, and Kupperschmidt, (2007) showing the same basic results. They showed decreased falls and much improved results in pain control. In 2007 a study was reported in Clinical Nurse Specialist again, supporting the same results. Johnson, and Topham (2007) reported a decrease in patient falls by 46% as they found that most patient falls were attributed to patients ge tting up to go to the bathroom. Hourly rounding improved this kind of fall drastically. All of these results indicate a quality, safety and cost effective way to improve patient outcomes. Initiating this change may be difficult as it not only is a change but disrupts nursing routine and asks them to follow through on their day completely different than they are used to doing. Anytime a process comes with that much change is not only difficult to make the change but difficult to maintain the change. Middle Range Theory Middle range theories are described as theories that are best used by emerging disciplines (McEwen &Wills, 2007). The suggestion is made because they are theories that are more readily operationalized than they others. They work well in nursing for that very reason. Practice often is affected by theory but on the average nursing does not recognize it. With the advent of advanced education for nursing, some of that has changed. However, operationalizing a theory is very important(MeEwen, et.al., 2007). McEwen (2007) tells the reader that there are several standard characteristics of a middle range theory. The principle ideas of the theory are simple, straightforward, and general. They consider a limited number of variables or concepts and they usually have a particular focus. They, like the studies observed have the ability to be empirically tested. Practice for nursing today must be studied and tested as evidence based practice is more important than ever before. The nursing problem of rounding, chosen for this paper can be analyzed using a middle range theory. The middle range theories derived from research and practice are the set of theories most likely to work well with this process. Grounded theory and qualitative methods are especially helpful. In the case of rounding there was qualitative research used, concept analysis, and quantitative analysis. The Newman Systems Model of prevention as intervention seems to be the be theory to apply in this case (McEwen, 2007, pg231). Concepts in Neuman' s theory are important here. "Environment is composed of both internal and external forces surrounding
Monday, September 23, 2019
Reason in Philosophy - Essay Example In the Twilight of the Idols, he describes the problem of the early philosophers such as Socrates and he says, "you want to know what the philosophers' idiosyncrasies are?... Their lack of historical sense for one thing, their hatred of the very idea of becoming, their Egypticity. They believe that they ought to be showing respect for something when they dehistoricize it, sub specie aeterni,- when they turn it into a mummy." He believes that for the past decade or so, philosophers (attempting to define why society is the way it is, or why someone behaves as they do), have lost touch. They use concepts that have been mummified, meanings that they kill the idea as it is and instead, stuff it with their beliefs. When they are faced with questions they cannot handle or that is beyond their reasoning, they look for reasons to criticize it (NIETZSCHE). The irony in his way of reasoning enables the reader to understand why he completely differs from every other philosophers explanations. It is his interpretation of what reasoning ought to be. This guides the themes he discusses in his first book where he rejects God and Christianity and sees them only as generalizations and a point whereby the philosophers confuse the idea of causal from effect. As a result, they take the obvious truths - the last idea, which is Christianity that ought not to be included, and criticizes what they accept as good since for him it is evil. According to Nietzsche, good people are great liars. As such, the society has embraced this morality to Christians who, in essence, are reasonable. A reasonable person, in this case, refers to an individual who embraces alternative truths. Thus, the society tends to criticize people by morally generalizing them. His justification for this argument, is that a strong person has learnt to put his personal desires for p ower that brings happiness to most humans under control, instead of being caught in crossfire of trying to justify themselves (Nietzsche).
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Working in Organisations - Organisational Analysis Report - Essay Example The next pÃ °rt of report describes orgÃ °nizÃ °tionÃ °l structure of orgÃ °nizÃ °tion bÃ °sing on the interview conducted. Ã mong numerous dimensions of retÃ °il orgÃ °nizÃ °tionÃ °l structure it reflects complexity, formÃ °lizÃ °tion, Ã °nd centrÃ °lizÃ °tion. The finÃ °l, fourth pÃ °rt of report is Ã ° concluding pÃ °rt where I describe orgÃ °nizÃ °tionÃ °l design of Tesco. BÃ °sing on the interviews thÃ °t I conducted previously Ã °nd literÃ °ture thÃ °t I hÃ °ve reseÃ °rched, I evÃ °luÃ °te orgÃ °nizÃ °tion Ã °nd suggest its design. MÃ °ny retÃ °il shopping centers hÃ °ve tried Ã °nd fÃ °iled to perform excellently outside their home mÃ °rkets. Likewise, some retÃ °ilers hÃ °ve led Ã °strÃ °y trying to develop Internet shopping. Ã s Ã ° result, TESCO, the United Kingdoms biggest grocer, hÃ °s drÃ °wn significiÃ °nt Ã °ttention becÃ °use of its Ã °mbitious overseÃ °s strÃ °tegy Ã °nd its successful on-line home delivery service. Ã nother successful key fÃ °ctor thÃ °t inputs to TESCO sustÃ °inÃ °ble development Ã °nd growth is the mÃ °rketing communicÃ °tion plÃ °n thÃ °t provides the detÃ °iled overview of the CompÃ °nyÃ¢â¬â¢s fiscÃ °l policies Ã °s for meeting the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs Ã °nd providing competitive prices within wisely locÃ °ted grocers Ã °ll over the world. TESCO understÃ °nds thÃ °t successful mÃ °rketing strÃ °tegy should be bÃ °sed on customersÃ¢â¬â¢ need, thÃ °t is why the Mission StÃ °tement declÃ °red for the CompÃ °ny sounds Ã °s it f ollows: Ã¢â¬Å"One of our vÃ °lues is to understÃ °nd customers better thÃ °n Ã °nyone. We go to greÃ °t lengths to Ã °sk customers whÃ °t they think, listen to their views, Ã °nd then Ã °ct on them. We look both Ã °t whÃ °t customers sÃ °y Ã °nd whÃ °t they do. This feedbÃ °ck guides the decisions we tÃ °leÃ¢â¬ (www.TESCO.com) Tesco is the lÃ °rgest food retÃ °iler in UK, operÃ °ting Ã °round 2,318 stores worldwide. Tesco operÃ °tes Ã °round 1,878 stores throughout the UK, Ã °nd Ã °lso operÃ °tes stores in the rest of Europe Ã °nd Ã siÃ °. Tesco.com is Ã ° wholly-owned subsidiÃ °ry offering Ã °
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Family Assessment Essay GordonÃ¢â¬â¢s functional health patterns is a method developed by Marjory Gordon, a nursing theorist and professor. The functional health patterns are to be used during the nursing process to obtain a more comprehensive assessment. There are 11 functional health patterns to in place to create a comprehensive assessment. The functional health patterns are values and health perception and management, sleep/rest, nutrition, activity/exercise, elimination, cognitive-perceptual, role relationship, self perception, coping-stress tolerance, sexuality and religion. In this paper, I will discuss all of these functional health patterns as they pertain to my husbands perception of our family. Functional Health Patterns I interviewed my husband using GordonÃ¢â¬â¢s functional health pattern guided questions. Miguel is a 41 year old father of four children, Trysten who is 6, Tyernen is 5, Lola is 3 and Eva who is 14 months old. Miguel has been married to Susan for 13 years. He has been running a household for the past 5 years at, taking on the newest role for men as a stay at home parent. The Health PerceptionÃ¢â¬âHealth Management pattern involves health practices used to reach current level of health or wellness and the individuals actual health status. Questions should focus on the individuals perceived health status and meaning of health. During the assessment of this pattern, a nurse may unearth other patterns that may need to be explored. (Edelman) Rarely sick, Miguel goes to the doctor when necessary and is on Zoloft for anxiety. The kids have been to the doctor this year for their well check ups. Trysten is battling allergies, and just got over a sinus infection. Eva had an ear infection and is now teething. Tyernen had his tonsils out last year. Lola is relatively healthy and Susan just discovered she has been starting to get migraines and is trying different home remedies for these. Nutritional-metabolic patterns focus on the nutrient intake relative to metabolic need. This includes evidence of nutritional balance (physical examination) and reports and description of food and fluid consumption (history). (Edelman) Many meals are eaten out, fast food and restaurants are frequented. When foods are cooked at home, stews, steak, chicken cutlets, pastas, bread, and salads are usually made. Snacks include fruits and banana shakes he makes for the kids. He is overweight and states he knows so. The kids are healthier, and the parents make better choices for them then they do for themselves. Susan is, too, overweight. A very important factor when assessing the sleep-rest pattern is the perception of getting an adequate amount of relaxation and sleep. If the individual reports energy levels waning or fatigue this may provide some indication of the individuals satisfaction. People have their own ideas about the roles that rest and sleep play in preparing the individual for desired or required daily activities. This pattern becomes extremely important when sleep and rest are reported as insufficient because it effects other aspects in the assessment. (Edelman) Miguel states that he has trouble sleeping and is often tired the next day. He states Ã¢â¬Å"the doctor ordered a sleep study for my sleep apnea IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure I have, but I never go. Ã¢â¬ Children sleep well through the night, approximately 10 hours. Susan just switch from working night shift to day shift, and is flipping her schedule around. Elimination patterns include bladder, skin and bowel function. Nurses ask the patient about regularity, quality, and quantity of stool and urine through reports from the individual any changes or perceived problems and about methods used to get regularity or control. Perspiration quantity and quality determine excretory skin function. (Edelman) In regards to his bathroom habits, he states he goes regularly. Miguels skin is clear, some dryness on elbows and knees noted. Hair and nails look healthy and clean. Children have normal patterns and skin is clear no dryness. Susan has drier skin, states bathroom needs are normal. The activity-exercise focuses on activity level, regular exercise program, and leisure time activities. Physical and subjective assessments include movement capability, activity tolerance, use of assistive devices, self-care ability, satisfaction with activity and exercise patterns, and any perceived problems. (Edelman) With the 4 children, he does get out and play with the kids, but there is no regular exercise routine. The children play everyday outside, wether in the park or in the yard. Susan doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a regular exercise program either. Cognitive patterns are the ability of the individual to understand and follow directions, make decisions, solve problems, retain information and use language appropriately. Auditory, olfactory, visual, gustatory, tactile, and kinesthetic sensations and perceptions impact the perceptual and sensory patterns. (Edelman) Cognitively, Miguel reads the news online and utilizes the internet to write to his family in Argentina. English is his second language, and he does need assistance expressing himself every once in a while. He does wear glasses, but they are more for driving needs. Children are developmentally on target for their respective ages. Susan is working full time, taking on line courses and running a home with the help of her husband. The sense of each individuals personal identity, emotional patterns, goals, and feelings about the self is the self perception pattern. Self-image and sense of worth come from the individuals perception of personal appearance, limitations, and competencies, including the individuals self-perception and others perceptions. (Edelman) Miguel wants to go back to school, but his family is first. At this time, he is at home, allowing his wife to continue her education to better their situation. He feels trapped at times, wants to go back to work. He wants to go to the gym, but his children are more important at this time. He reads to better his knowledge base and fixes the cars, thriving on a bargain when it is found. Again, children seem to be on with their developemental milestones. Susan is having trouble with her physical appearance. Though she projects a confident persona, she is uncomfortable with how she looks at this time. Roles-relationships pattern describes the identity the individual assumes with in a social group and how they interact with others with in that social group and how they are connected. The individuals perception is a large component of the assessment, as is the individuals subjective level of satisfaction with the roles and relationships they are in. (Edelman) Miguel states Ã¢â¬Å"I am a daddy, husband, and a friend. Ã¢â¬ He describes himself in his roles, Ã¢â¬Å"daddyÃ¢â¬ being the most important to him. The childrens role are still being determined due to the fact they are so young. Trysten is big brother to all and best friend to daddy. Tyernen is a big brother and in competition with Trysten all the time, though it seems to make them want to be better. Tyernen favors his mother, but jokes around often with daddy. Lola seems to have taken on the role of trouble maker, and Eva is following her footsteps. Susan has taken on the role of mother, breadwinner, student, and nurse (not in any specific order). She tends to lead the family, get everyone moving. The sexuality-reproductive pattern is defined by the individuals sexual functioning, sexual self-concept, methods of intimacy, and reproductive areas. The importance of sexuality to the individuals life and health is related to the relationship and self-perception patterns. Body image, gender identity and role are linked to sexual identity. Sexual functioning involves, but is not limited to, sexual relations with a partner. (Edelman) Miguel and Susan have not been physically intimate in a long while. Either one of them remember the last time. This is mostly due to SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s self-perception/body image and the busy lives that are being lead. Miguel has expressed more than once that the physical aspect of their shared sexuality is unsatisfying. The ability to manage stress in life is a learned behavior. Stress is an inevitable part of life; without it there is no motivation to grow. Most stress comes from minor irritations that build over time, not great tragedies. Edelman) There are many stressors affecting this family. Four young childrensÃ¢â¬â¢ demands, being in Arizona when we would prefer to be in New York, working full time, going back to school, staying home with the kids, many many stressors are impacting the lives of the two parents. For the most part, the stress is handled well, though we both seem to be r eaching for food too often and may need to re evaluate our coping mechanisms so it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t impact the childrens learned coping mechanisms. The values-beliefs pattern is defined as the individuals goals, spiritual values and beliefs. Each of the 11 health patterns addresses the value systems of individuals, family, and society. Individual values or beliefs develop over time and guides the individuals life through societal influences and personal experiences with family. (Edelman) There is no firm religious influence in the home. The family is valued, belief in building a strong base for the children to grow. After compiling the data from the assessment of the family discussed in the paragraphs above, some nursing diagnosis that would be appropriate would be: Altered Nutrition more than body requirements related to using food as a coping mechanism. Sexual dysfunction related to change in body or self-image. Ineffective coping related to inadequate coping method. In conclusion, the functional health patterns gave me a better idea of what is happening in my family and how it is effecting my husband and our relationship. There is always an aspect of the health patterns that can be improved upon within a family, it is the nurses job when assessing to be thorough and helpful.
Friday, September 20, 2019
What Is The New Economic Model Economics Essay Earlier of 2010, Malaysia government introduces the four pillars of national transformation which the aim is to achieve Vision 2020. The New Economic Model (NEM) is part of the four pillars of national transformation. The figure above showed the pillars of NEM. NEM consists of several plans and strategies such as Government Transformation Plan (GTP), Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), 10th 11th Malaysia Plan, and Principle of 1 Malaysia. Combination of these plans can form the NEM which plays the role of shelter to our country. From the bottom, there are 10th and 11th Malaysia Plans. These plans will act as the supported foundation for the NEM. With the aids of GTP and ETP, NEM can be implemented more comprehensive. However, if without the 1 Malaysia concepts, our shelter cannot complete. Therefore, concept of 1 Malaysia will act as the roof to cover all the plans and strategies. The NEM is an economic plan in Malaysia which is unveiled on 30 March, 2010 by Malaysian Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razaks. NEM will generate benefits for all Malaysians. This economic plan is proposed to gain double income per capital Malaysia by 2020. Besides that, one of the NEMs propose is to reduce income disparity between the rich and poor in Malaysia, improve the system of affirmative action to becoming more competitive market and investor friendly, and improving workers productivity. Figure 1.2: Goals of New Economic ModelThe focus of the NEM is to transform the Malaysian into a developed and competitive economy whose people enjoy a high quality of life and high level of income from growth that is both of inclusive and sustainable by 2020. The keys to the plan as described unveiling are high income, sustainability and inclusiveness, which together will translate into a high quality of life for the rakyat. The first goal of NEM is high income. NEM aims to bring Malaysia to high income country with per capita income US$15,000 until US$20,000 by 2020. Currently, per capita annual income in Malaysia only worth at $7,000 in US currency; under NEM plan the figure would be double to US$15,000. When achieve this target, Malaysia would be able to escape from the middle income trap. Inclusiveness is second goal of NEM. Under inclusiveness, all Malaysian include Sabah and Sarawak enables to fully benefit and share the nation wealth. In additional, inclusiveness which can ensure that every citizen right could be preserved and no group could be ignored in the nation. Discrimination and bias will fully prohibited. The last goal of NEM is sustainability, which its refers to current generations meets present needs without compromising the future generations. Because of that, government will safeguard the natural resources that we have now from miss-spent. Furthermore, sustainability of the quality life will be pursuing and government takes action in order to reform the sector so that it achieves efficiency and equity. To achieve the goals of New Economic Model, there are eight Strategic Reform Initiatives (SRIs) those recommendations by NEAC. First SRI is re-energising the private sector. That because private sector play an important role in enhancing economic growth in the country. So, private sectors are encouraged to involve themselves in investment especially in high value added products and services so that sustained economy growth and high income country can be generated. Second SRI is developing quality workforce and reducing dependency on foreign labour. Under this policy, government will focus on labour markets and ensure that to work well. Efforts will put on such as workers must work efficiently to increase productivity and wages. Under the adjustment of labour market must be smooth, government need to ensure that workers are doing in the correct jobs which match with their knowledge and skill. Brain-drain problem needs to be solved to attract our skilled labour so that they can contribute in Malaysia economy. Besides that, government also focuses to generating a talented workforce to meet the needs of a high-value knowledge economy. Therefore, wage-restraining labour market distortions, such as excessive and indiscriminate use of foreign labour, will be removed. Creating a competitive domestic economy is a third SRI in NEM. To create the competitive domestic economy, many distortions such as subsidies, price controls and a myriad of distortion-creating incentives will be removed. Additionally, government also will build entrepreneurship to achieve this policy. Therefore, the ETP will help the vulnerable groups with an enhanced social safety net such as health care, education and etc, and a special transformation fund for them. The fourth of SRI is strengthening of the public sector. Public sector must be re-engineered. The reform programmes will continue to improve and speed up decision making processes using the whole-of-government approach and others. Government also focuses to improve the service delivery to rakyat. One main point in this policy is government want to reduce the friction costs. That means government wants to zero tolerance for the corruption. SRI 5 is transparent and market friendly affirmative action. Government will encourage equal and fair economic opportunities, and ensure that affirmative action programmes will continue in order to achieve the objectives, rent-seeking and market distorting features which have limited their effectiveness of the programme should be eliminate. Furthermore, this policy also emphasize in narrowed the gap between rich and poor. The real intention to reduce the income disparity is because in Malaysia still have the bottom 40 percent of households earn an average lower than RM1,500 per month. Besides that, government want make sure that all Malaysian get equitable and fair opportunities through the transparent process. The sixth SRI is building the knowledge base infrastructure. The key focus here is to promote an economic transformation in the industrial, agricultural and services sectors for innovation by strengthening the delivery of high quality education that nurtures innovation and technology. The aims of this policy are to create an ecosystem for entrepreneurship, promote an environment for innovation and lastly establish stronger enabling institutions. SRI 6 is enhancing the sources of growth. Malaysia will control its natural resource endowment and made sectors of comparative advantages as the main sources of high value added growth. From that, government can maximize spillover effects into new areas of activities. The aims from this policy are to create value from first mover and other comparative advantages, develop greater integration between the product and etc. Lastly, SRI 8 is ensuring sustainability of growth. Our country is rich in natural resources. So the purpose of this policy is to preserving our natural resources from the wasting. At the same time, government focuses to safeguarding the interest of future generations. The safeguarding interest of future generations will be complemented by sustainable public finances through stringent fiscal discipline. 2.0 Why we need NEM? Figure 2.1: GNI Per Capita (1990-2008; USD Thousand) Source: The World Bank The figure had shown the gross net income (GNI) per capita for nine selected countries which are Korea, Czech Republic, Slovakia Poland, Poland, Chile, Argentina, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia that at the middle income boundary in 1990. This figure reveals the position of the Malaysia had reached a middle income boundary since 1990. Malaysia had performance well in the early 1990 and able achieved 9 percent growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) in the mid 1990. However, Malaysia stood at middle-income position for three decades and unable to break up the middle-income trap and achieve to high income nation despite its achievement in the past few decades (Abdullah, 2010). The figure show that Korea, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Chile had cross over middle-income trap and achieved as a high income nation especially Korea with the GNI per capita USD 19,830 in 2009 which is high than the goal of NEM that USD 15,000 targeted for Malaysia. NEM report states that economic engine is slowing due to the absence of the private investment, difficulties of doing business, low value added industries, low-skilled jobs and low wages, stagnating productivity growth, insufficient innovation and creativity and lack of appropriately skilled human capital. Malaysia trapped in a low-cost, low-value economic structure; persistent low wages too are not attracting and retaining domestic and foreign talents, making it more difficult to move up the value chain (Teoh, 2010). The figures 2.2 have shown the private and public investment conditions in Malaysia, Thailand, and Singapore: Figure 2.2: Private and public investment as share of GDP (1989-2008; %) Source: BNM, CEIC, Bank of Thailand The GNI per capita of Malaysia was seriously affected by Asian financial crisis 1997 when Malaysia had a good performance in the investment in mid 1990 which occupied 40 percent of GDP in Malaysia. However, the investment in Malaysia had fallen to 20 percent of GDP in 2008 (NEAC, 2010). This was implied that Malaysia was facing difficulties in recovery from the economic recession after 1997. Besides that, the foreign direct investment (FDI) and foreign portfolio investment (FPI) were the main reasons that Malaysia suffers in capital flight due to the financial crisis. This had supported with the figure above which Malaysia had experienced rigorous declined in private investment due to the government and Government Linked Company (GLC) presence has discouraged the private investment and the barriers of the regulation for foreign company entries Malaysia domestic market (NEAC, 2010). Importantly, Thailand was recovered from the economic recession quickly compare to Malaysia that stagna ted in private investment. Moreover, Malaysias competitiveness in term of attracting foreign direct investment also show a declining trend which Malaysia global competitiveness index has dropped to 26th in the 2011 show that Malaysia was less attractive compared to other countries such as Singapore are closely related with Malaysia (World Bank, 2011). In public investment context, Malaysia had more reliance on the public investment rather than private investment which the private and public investment share are occupied almost same percentages of share in GDP in recent year even high than private investment after the economic recession. The averages annual growth of three components contributed to Malaysias economic growth from 1991 until 2006 was shown as below. The figure 2.3 implies that Malaysia more focus on the public investment which government expenditure relatively increase compared to other two components. In contrary, the contribution of investment toward economic growth was declined from 14 has dropped to 3 implied that Malaysia is reliance on the consumption to driving economic growth rather than investment after post-crisis. Figure 2.3: Average annual growth from 1991 to 2006 of Malaysia Whilst NEM emphasize on pushing Malaysia toward a high income nation, the inclusiveness also highlight in this model to reduce the income disparities of Malaysia. According NEM reports, there are only top 20 percent of Malaysian income earners shown the strong of income growth as presented in the figure 2.4. The bottom 40 percent of households have experienced the slowest growth of average income, earning an average of RM1,222 in 2008 (NEAC,2010). This one of the factor needed to concern in Malaysia in order to assist Malaysia achieves the Vision 2020. Figure 2.4: National household income (Average by segment, 1980-2008;RM) Source: MDI Thus, the NEM is needed as bold approach that provided policy measures derived from the SRIs in order to pushing Malaysia economic cross over the middle-income trap and provide the equitable and fair opportunities to Malaysian in order to reduced the gap between poorer and richer widening. However, the success of the NEM is significantly reliance on the steadfast commitment by government to implement NEM, the preparedness of the rakyat to comprise the difficult changes and a big push of strategic policy measures but not incremental changes (NEAC, 2010). 3.0 Conflict between first part and second part of NEM The affirmative action policy had been implemented for a long period in Malaysia which granting special status and privileges schemes to Malays aims to reduce bumiputera poverty and special scheme were adopted to reallocate corporate assets in Malaysia from Chinese-Malaysians and Indian-Malaysians to the benefit of bumiputeras (Lee, 2011). This is because bumiputera only occupied 2.6 percent of ownership in the corporate sector in 1971 which relatively lower than other community. This policy also focuses on bumiputeras contribution toward national wealth and 30 percent equity of company reserve to the bumiputera in the certain selected sectors that rise up the government expenditure which the total government debt is 41.5 percent of GDP is relatively high for a regime that provide few social services (Lee, 2011). Importantly, these schemes had encouraged the rent seeking bumiputera elites dependent on government assistance and requested the continuation of affirmation action. In this context, the NEM incorporates a new approach which can be summarized as inclusive growth. Inclusive growth is pro-poor growth and is concerned not only with the level but also the effect of persistent inequality on economic growth and poverty alleviation (NEAC, 2010). A key challenge for inclusive growth is to attain a balance between the special position of Malays, the natives of Sabah and Sarawak and legitimate interests of other group (Abdullah, 2010). Hence NEMs market-friendly affirmative action programmes in line with the principle of inclusiveness had revised from the past affirmative action will discontinue past practices that gave rise to unhealthy and pervasive rent-seeking and patronage activities; ensure equitable and fair opportunities through transparent processes; provided the assistance to the bottom 40 percent of households which 77.2 percent are bumiputeras and many are located in Sabah and Sarawak; allow right to use to resources on the basis of needs and m erit to enables improvement in capacity, income and well-being; have sound institutional frameworks for better monitoring and effective implementation(The Star Online, 2010). In SRI 5, NEM proposed that the revised affirmative action policy should be based on the bottom 40% of households. An affirmative action policy based on the low income group such as giving preferential treatment to the relatively disadvantages group proposed in NEM would be in the interest of distributive justice. Affirmative action will reflect on all ethnic groups equally as long as they qualify for access to resources under affirmative action. Moreover, an Equal Opportunity Commission (EEC) is proposed with the responsibility of monitoring and considering cases of discrimination and unfair treatment in the economy to cover both the public and private sectors (NEAC, 2010). Interestingly, in the NEM concluding part, targeted programmes for the bumiputera Commerce and Industry Community (BCIC) is one of policy measures for income disparities which contradict with the market-friendly policy. In the targeted programmes, market friendly, transparent and granted on the basis of needs and merit was emphasized on the special programmes in order to allow beneficiaries to adapt with the impetuosity competitive business environment to become self sufficient although weaning them away from prolonged dependence on such special programmes (NEAC, 2010). The NEAC recommends that Government and GLC procurement reservation for BCIC should continue but be targeted for bumiputera SMEs only. This was obviously implied that there is conflict between the reservations for BCIC with the market-friendly affirmative action that purposed in the first part of the NEM. According Asia Views, 34 years after implement New Economic Policy (NEP), official statistic states that bumiputera held equity in Malaysia stood at 18.7 percent or close to 11 percent below the target (Teoh, 2011). Moreover, there are a small layer of people (and it is a multi-ethnic group) have used the policy of affirmative action for the bumiputera to improve themselves through rent seeking, over-priced contracts and naked corruption. The majority of the bumiputera have only received a minor portion of the economic assistance that they were supposed to have received, and a large number of them are still stuck in poverty (Devaraj, 2010). However, NEM does not advocate the removal of the special position of bumiputera and the legitimate interests of the other communities (Abdullah, 2010). There are some arguments that support the retention of 30 percent bumiputera equity. In the targeted programmes for BCIC, open tenders for government and GLC procurements which are reserved for bumiputera small-medium enterprises will foster greater inter-racial unity (Khoo, 2010). 4.0 Issues facing by NEM In NEM, it is an economic model where it promises to bring Malaysia escape from the middle income trap and promote to high income level. The targeted income level will be USD 15,000 to 20,000 per capital in year 2020. Inclusiveness and sustaining are the considered factors in making policy. There are three important issues will be highlighted through NEM. There are: Education Entrepreneurial Skills Institutional Reform First issue that will discuss is education. Why education will be an issue in NEM? The most probably answer is that education is a persistent factor and it was also the root to Malaysia economy problems. Besides that, it is also the one of the factor that cause Malaysias investment growth one step behind if compares to our neighbour countries such as Singapore and even Thailand. Another significant reason is because NEM highly depends on technology upgrading, creation of a knowledge-economy and the development of a highly skilled workforce. In these three perspectives, high quality of human capital, innovation and effective RD is needed. To fulfill the requirements of NEM, education system plays an important role. The problems behind of education are education reform and brain-drain problems. First of all, education reform is an effort to change the present education system. When people talk about the education reforming, tertiary education will be the focus. University will be the root of blame because graduates unable to performing in their workplace. However, the blame should not only go to university. This is because students only spent three to four year time in university according to their course taken. Primary school and secondary school were occupied most of their time. Interest, intellectual curiosity, and creativity should be cultivated from younger period. Besides that, basic knowledge should be instilled from young to promise for the future understanding. When students are weak in the basic knowledge, they may find difficulty in their future study. Cannot be denied, universities have responsibility too. The most probably problem is graduates cannot speak and write proper English. Lectures and professors in university should teach in proper English. Foreign student exchange programme can encourage students speak and write better English. Not only the quality of the teachers in primary school and secondary school should be improves, however, the quality of lectures and professors need to be improved too. Another problem related with education in Malaysia is Brain-drain problem. Brain-drain problems can be defined as the loss of skilled intellectual and technical labour through the movement of such labour to more favourable geographic, economic, or professional environments. In Malaysia, brain-drain problems reach a critical stage where within the past nine years; only less than one percent of Malaysian who work overseas are willing to return to their mother land (Chua, 2011). The questions come out with why the professional are not willing to return to their mother land? Is that they will achieved greatness in performing their speciality, social status even prosperity if they develop their talent and skill overseas? Certainly, there must be several reasons why this happened. The first and the most, attractive wages in overseas encourage local professionals not dong their speciality in their mother land. For example, in United Kingdom, a fresh graduates from a degree of law can average earn Ã £36,500 a year in a law firm whereas in Malaysia fresh entrance only pay RM 21,600 a year. Second reason for brain drain in Malaysia will be the job opportunity. Especially for those job are unavailable in Malaysia, they are force to move to overseas to found the place where they have chances to performing. For example, in the political field, Penny Wong, who born in Kota Kinabalu, is a first openly gay and at the same time she is one of the members in Australian Commonwealth cabinet. Besides that, she is also the Australian Minister for Finance and Deregulation. In Malaysia, she might not have chance to step in political field just because of she has unique preferences. The other example will be the famous shoes designer Jimmy Choo who is expert in fashion line. He is also a Malaysian but contribute lots in London through fashion line. If he remains his expertise in Malaysia, he might not that successful because Malaysia has less market and demand in fashion line. In science and technology sector, although Malaysia has motif to join in this sector, however, resistance is still especially in the technology that we have might loss behind. Pua Khien Seng, who born in Selangor, was the first in the world who invented the USB pendrive that we widely use today. He is now currently own a listed company worth RM4.3 billion in Taiwan. Among the example, they are not return to Malaysia maybe is because they cannot perform their expertise in Malaysia, but not because of they are not willing to return to their mother land. The second issue that been emphasize is the entrepreneurial skill. Entrepreneurship can be defined as the recognition and pursuit of opportunity without regard to the resources you currently control with the confidence that you can succeed, with the flexibility to change course as necessary, and with the will to rebound from setbacks according to Bob Reiss, in his book Low-Risk, High-Reward: Starting and Growing Your Small Business With Minimal Risk (Hupalo, 2004). The reason why entrepreneurial skill is highlighted is because of it is close concern with SRI1 in NEM where its core has the re-energisation of the private sector as its goal. When the private sector as the targeted sector to growth, entrepreneur will be the focus because small and middle enterprise are highly depends entrepreneurship. However, the issue behind is that bumiputera entrepreneurs are less representation is nation wealth. Since the New Economic Policy, bumiputera entrepreneurs are given special treatment where there are 30% of the equity ownership are been given. According to a journal article, bumiputera entrepreneurs are less successful is due to several factors. The factors include inability to compete, lack of competency and capital, customer-related problems, employee-related problems, unfavourable economic conditions, bureaucracy, supplier discrimination, and negative community attitudes were found to be crucial (Abdullah, Hamali, Deen, Saban, Abdurahman, 2009). This meaning that among the bumiputera entrepreneurs, they must sharpen their skills to flourish without any dependence on government handouts. Of course, if NEM want to achieve successful, the equity ownership issue should be adequately address. The third issue will be discuss is the institutional reform. Institution reform can be defined as the changes to transportation organizations policies and practices to support government implementation. Institution reform should in term of norm, habits and convention in society must support efficiency and competitiveness of a country. Civil liberties and more liberal political do helps in promote economic development. Therefore, the issue behind is that how much of our government do given the liberty? It is suppose to have institution reform to gain fully freedom of speech, freedom assembly and demonstration. Unluckily, in NEM, it is lack emphasis on the state capture. State capture can be defined as the efforts of firms to shape the laws, policies, and regulations of the state to their own advantage by providing illicit private gains to public officials. It is always referring to corruption. Although there are zero-tolerance for corruption been mention in NEM, however, it just a list of it. There are no proper and effective strategies being introduce to reduce the corruption problems in our country. According to Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), Malaysia corruption score is getting lower from year 2008 to 2010. This ranking is based on data from independent institution such as World Bank, Economist Intelligence Unit and World Economic Forum. The score of CPI have the scale from zero to ten. The lowest score zero show it is high corruption and low transparency. When the score is ten, it is high transparency and lowest corruption. Malaysia corruption scores as follow show that corruption problem is getting serious from year to year. Table 3.1 Corruption Perception Index (CPI) of Malaysia from 2008 to 2010. 2008 2009 2010 Malaysias CPI 5.1 4.5 4.4 Source: (Rogers, 2009) Therefore, more and more effective policy and strategies should be draw up to cure this problem in our country. 5.0 Challenges in NEM NEM is about to change Malaysias current economic condition to the better economic in 2020 through the NEM goals. Change is the buzzword in order to reach the goals. However, in order to change, Malaysia faces challenges in terms of: Mindset Political will Labor force Satisfying all quarters? Sustaining the change Mindset is refers to the way of how people thinking. The people mindset as well as the politicians mindset must be ready to the changing in Malaysian economy through the NEM policy. Most of people in Malaysia are not aware that Malaysian economies are lagging behind some of the countries that now experience the emerging economies such as China and India. This mindset changing is the biggest challenge for the NEM to achieve its goals, because the operationalization of NEM is requiring the whole nations contribution. If they are not willing to change their mindset, then there is a big potential for the NEM policy to not work smoothly or it might fail in achieving its goal. As the Malaysian Prime Minister speech on March 30, 2010, he said that the process of changing the nations mindset is not easy and while the process, there will be a painful moments. This is because in the short term, there will be entrenched opposition and some of economic sectors may experience adverse effects. But in the long term, the mindset changing will bring lots of benefit to the nations. Political will is one of the key and important enabling factors for the NEM in supporting changes in this new policy. Without the political will, it is hard for the government to achieve the goal in NEM. In NEM report, it has mentioned that the political will and leadership needed to break the log-jam of resistance and preparing the peoples. In other words, the government must have the determination to break the log-jam of vested interest and beneficiaries of rent-seeking. If the log-jam of vested interest and beneficiaries of rent-seeking is still exists during the operationalization of NEM, it will cause to only some party gained the benefit of NEM and this result to inequality and lead to the failure in achieving the NEM goals which is inclusiveness. To achieve the NEM goals, political together with the intellectual leadership must demonstrate the necessary commitment to the NEM besides the political will and leadership need an emphasis on a coherent explanation of the vision and agenda of the NEM and transformation process (The Star, March 301, 2010). Furthermore, after the government spending about RM40 billion to came out with the policy, it is a big loss if the political will is not willing to operationalize this new policy. There must be a mindset changing and political willingness in order to successfully transforming to the NEM and achieved its goal while facing these challenges ( November 12, 2010, Dato Dr Mahani Zainal Abidin, Institute and International Studies, Malaysia): Getting the needed in investment but this will require restoring investors confidence via accommodating business environment. Undertake restructuring prices for goods and services will improve economic efficiency but may initially raise consumer prices and costs of doing business. Transforming the education system as a medium and long term task but requires policy consistency. Reduced dependence on foreign labor encourages firms to move up the value chain or embrace automation while those cannot, will exit and this also costing some local jobs. Moving towards green economy and promoting energy efficiency but this will require expensive initial investment and may erode price competitiveness. Reducing inequality between income levels and between rural and urban areas while striving for high economic growth. Addressing problem of urban poverty and improving infrastructure while maintaining a balance with achieving high investments in urban areas. One of the NEM intentions is making Malaysia entering the new phase in the industrialization process, moving away from a low-cost, export-oriented strategy to a higher value-added capital intensive and high technology-based industrialization where it is requiring a highly-skilled labor force. Comparing a knowledge-based economy or k-economy, NEM is an advance economic structure which requires a huge number of knowledgeable and high-skilled labors in new and emerging fields such as robotic engineering, information and communication technology and bio-technology and this development requires a high percentage of knowledge workers which would become the backbone of the Malaysian economy (February 18, 2011, Blog Rasmi Jabatan peguam Negara). High-skilled workforce not only needed in industrial sector but in service sector as well. Without the existing of high-skilled labor, it is impossible to entering the new phase besides high-skilled labor also one of the factors that attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to invest in Malaysia. But then, Malaysia is now facing the brain-drain problem where most of the talented, knowledgeable and high-skilled labor force moves to the more developed country such as Singapore. This matter becomes one of the challenges in NEM because in order to fulfill the requirement of high-skilled labor force, they have to attract back those Malaysian who work outside from Malaysia to work back at their motherland. Not only to attract them back but also find a way on how to eliminate the brain-drain problem and to reduce the number of high-skilled labor force that move away from Malaysia. They have to recognize what the factors that make all the high-skilled labor work out from Malaysia and develop some policy or law to prevent them work out from Malaysia. Since Malaysian people is consist of various races and religion, when making a policy it must satisfying
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Towards the end of the nineteen twenties and through the nineteen thirties of the twentieth century the United States was struck with the largest economic dilemma; the Great Depression. Throughout the Great Depression presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt tried their hardest at reconstructing the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy so that it would be able to continue itÃ¢â¬â¢s path to becoming the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest nation ever. However, it was a long and several times unsuccessful road which would come to see more than two decades when traveling down it. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During this great depression the farmers of America were greatly effected, maybe more than any other single group of persons in the nation (Bubble Bursts, 133). What came to be known as Ã¢â¬Å"HoovervillesÃ¢â¬ popped up across the country, composed primarily of unavailing farmers and their families. In the central area of the United States is where most farmers were affected as it was made of mostly plains and open dirt roads. It was here in central America that farmers gained their most known name used throughout the Depression, Ã¢â¬Å"okiesÃ¢â¬ . These, simply, were the farmers which harshly suffered during the economic downfall. Through times of terror and hardship, when the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy bottomed out, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s farmers were faced with the most complex quandary ever; the national farming crisis of the Great Depression. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is overt to all persons that when materials are grown or produced for sale that a profit is to be made so that money is made back. Between the years of nineteen fifteen and nineteen-nineteen many farmers in the United States actually prospered very well (Baughman, 89). This acute onset of Ã¢â¬Å"good timesÃ¢â¬ was a direct result of European agriculture being temporarily destroyed by World War I (89). As Europe looked to rebuild domestic agriculture they simultaneously looked at nations afar to ephemerally support them. The United States was one of these nations which was looked to for help. Using the supply and demand theory American farmers increased and expanded their supply of crops in order to meet the short-term demand of Europe. This proved to be detrimental to the farming economy of America just several short years later (89). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Eventually, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Europe was recovering and beginning to rebuild its agricultural sector, it no longer needed to import huge amounts of farm products from abroadÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Baughman, 89). It was at this time in the early nineteen twenties that the economy of American farming began to plump downward.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
To an extent, fear can be used as a way to mold society. The fear of terrorism set out by the event of 9/11 made it a more fear-driven world with growing minds of over analytical, blind, ignorant and assumable citizens, finger-pointing at others. But Jose Saramago's Blindness shows the possibility of fear molding our society. An epidemic of a bright, white blindness affecting all people, such brightness that no one would see anything but the white brightness itself, the novel uses this metaphorically as that we choose to ignore so much of the misery that goes on around us, the awful things that are happening in front of us, the despicable aspects of life. Instead, we chose to see what we want to see. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã "Look here, blind man, let me tell you something, either the two of you get back to where you came from, or you'll be shot, Let's go, said the wife, there's nothing to be done, they're not to blame, they're terrified and are only obeying orders..." (Saramago 63) This scene involves the blind in the institution, specifically the doctor and his wife that came to ask a guard for any antibiotics for a wounded man. This and other scenes throughout the novel shows the panic and fear from society and the government of this epidemic of blindness rapidly spreading with no reason. And particularly found in this quote is the power and the ability to implant such threat and fear in the blind internees, who are not only afraid of their own life that's hanging by a string because of th... Molding of Society in Saramago's Blindness Essay -- Jose Saramago To an extent, fear can be used as a way to mold society. The fear of terrorism set out by the event of 9/11 made it a more fear-driven world with growing minds of over analytical, blind, ignorant and assumable citizens, finger-pointing at others. But Jose Saramago's Blindness shows the possibility of fear molding our society. An epidemic of a bright, white blindness affecting all people, such brightness that no one would see anything but the white brightness itself, the novel uses this metaphorically as that we choose to ignore so much of the misery that goes on around us, the awful things that are happening in front of us, the despicable aspects of life. Instead, we chose to see what we want to see. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã "Look here, blind man, let me tell you something, either the two of you get back to where you came from, or you'll be shot, Let's go, said the wife, there's nothing to be done, they're not to blame, they're terrified and are only obeying orders..." (Saramago 63) This scene involves the blind in the institution, specifically the doctor and his wife that came to ask a guard for any antibiotics for a wounded man. This and other scenes throughout the novel shows the panic and fear from society and the government of this epidemic of blindness rapidly spreading with no reason. And particularly found in this quote is the power and the ability to implant such threat and fear in the blind internees, who are not only afraid of their own life that's hanging by a string because of th...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The Triangle Fire of 1911 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Near closing time on Saturday afternoon, March 25, 1911, in New York City a fire broke out on the top floors of the Asch Building in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company. One of the worst tragedies in American history it is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Triangle Shirtwaist FireÃ¢â¬ . It was a disaster that took the lives of 146 workers, most of which were women. This tragedy pointed out the negatives of sweatshop conditions of the industrialization era. It emphasized the worst part of its times the low wages, long hours, and unsanitary working conditions were what symbolized what sweatshops were all about. These conditions were appalling, and no person should ever be made to work in these conditions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sweatshops were originally set up to produce a large quantity of mostly clothing items, with cheap labor wages for its workers. Sweatshops more often than not were cramped buildings with few windows or fans. The people who worked in these sweat shops rarely received breaks, and would on average 10-12 hours a day, seven days a week. The places were so unsanitary many did not have proper plumbing facilities to accommodate all those who worked there, and no way of cleaning or bandaging a cut or wound if injured on the job. Although these were the common standards of sweatshops the Asch Building, where the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory was located was a very large building, with nine floors. This building was large but cramped due to all the workers, material and machines. Every inch of viable space was used to put either a machine, material or another worker. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sadie Frowne, a swear shop worker from New York City stated Ã¢â¬Å"The machines go like mad all day because the faster you work the more money you get. Sometimes in my haste I get my finger caught and the needle goes right through it. It goes so quick, though, that it does not hurt much. I bind the finger up with a piece of cotton and go on workingÃ¢â¬ . This was the mind set of most of the workers in the sweatshops. They hated their job and long hours but as long as they worked the money, as little as it may be, still came in. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Most sweat shops were employers of immigrantÃ¢â¬â¢s, men children, and women. Women were especially employed at the Triangle shirtwaist factory, because it was easy to persuade wo... ...Ã In comparison with the Triangle Fire in 1911, the Rhode Island nightclub fire has a few similarities. Just like sweatshops, night clubs are often times over crowded and do not have enough fire exits to satisfy the overcrowding that takes place in nightclubs. Just as a miss thrown match caused the sweatshop fire, a miss thrown match in a night club could cause the same catastrophic event. In theory the number of smokers in an overcrowded night club often times outnumber non smokers, which could very well cause an unwanted fire that leads to a tragedy. Bibliography Famous Trials. The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Trial 1911. (website). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/triangle/trianglefire.html The Triangle Factory Fire By: Cornell University ILR School (website). http://www.irl.cornell.edu/trianglefire/ U.S. Fire Administration/National Fire Data Center. Nightclub Fires in 2000. (PDF File). http://www.emergency-management.net/pdf/FemaResearchNightclubFires2000.pdf Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Monday, September 16, 2019
Theories of communication A theory is a set of ideas that can be used to understand, explain and make predictions about something. Theories of communication provide ways of analysing communication between people and give care practitioners an insight into what works and why. Michael Argyle (1925Ã¢â¬â2002) was a social psychologist who researched and developed theories about human communication and interpersonal interaction. He focused on both verbal and non-verbal communication, carrying out experimental research to test and develop his theoretical ideas (see Argyle, 1967, 1969 and 1975).ArgyleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëcommunication cycleÃ¢â¬â¢ theory sets out to understand, explain and predict how communication occurs between people in one-to-one situations. In The Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour (1967), Argyle proposed that communication is a skill that needs to be learnt and practised like any other skill. ArgyleÃ¢â¬â¢s (1967) claim was that human communication is essentially a two-way process that involves people sending, receiving and responding to each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s verbal and non-verbal messages.The receiver of the message keeps the communication going by responding to or by giving feedback to the original message. This process then repeats and builds into a communication cycle. Care practitioners need to have an understanding of group processes and patterns of group behaviour in order to interact and communicate well in the various group situations that they experience. Understanding how groups form and then develop is an important part of this. Bruce Tuck man (1965) outlined a model of group development based around a number of stages, or a sequence, of group activity.Tuck manÃ¢â¬â¢s (1965) theory suggests that groups must go through these stages to be effective and that the pattern of communication in each of the four stages is different 1. Forming involves group members coming together and asking basic questions about the purpose and aims of t he group, each memberÃ¢â¬â¢s role within it and commitment to it. In this first stage of group development, members tend to feel quite anxious, often prioritise their own interests and may feel Ã¢â¬ËdisorientatedÃ¢â¬â¢ in their interactions with others. A leader usually emerges in this early stage. . Storming, the second stage, is a period of conflict within the group. Members may argue over the purpose of the group, may contest its aims and sometimes resist the authority and role of the leader. In this stage, power and control are the main issues. Eventually, the purpose of the group and the roles within it become clearer as power and control battles are won and lost. Without tolerance and patience at this stage, the team will fail. Co-operation between members should begin to develop towards the end of this phase. . Norming is the stage when the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s identity develops. A strong set of shared values, norms of behaviour and a group Ã¢â¬ËcultureÃ¢â¬â¢ emerge. The group arrives at one goal and agrees a shared plan to achieve it. The group becomes more cohesive and group members tend to work together to resolve conflicts. 4. Performing is the stage when the group finally matures and gets down to working effectively. Members tend to focus more on the overall goal rather than on relationships between themselves.Relationships have, by this stage, become more comfortable and are based on trust and mutual support. Reflect A group may or may not reach the performing stage: effective, high performing teams do but other less effective groups may get stuck at one of the earlier stages, particularly if they are unable to resolve the challenges or crises associated with that stage of group development. Effective communication within a group situation is a key influence on whether a group reaches the performing stag Theory of Communication Case Study Theory of Communication Introduction to Communication Good communication and interpersonal skills are vital for success in business. The ability to communicate clearly and persuasively is often seen as the key characteristic of the effective manager or administrator. High level communication skills are also essential in specialised functions, such as marketing, human resource management, public relations and secretarial. Communication is the means by which individual employees convey their wants, ideas and feelings to others,( not only managers or specialists). Process of Communication ContextMedium/Channel Message Feedback Noise Communication can be defined as the process by which, ideas, information, opinions, attitude, and feeling are conveyed from one person to another. The communicator or sender is the person who initiates the conversation by sending a message. The receiver is the person who receives the messages and completes the communication by responding to it. Mo st communication is two way and has to have both a sender and receiver, either face to face or by other means such as telephone, letters, e-mails etc. Body language also plays a big part in communication. Sender EncodingReceiver Decoding Communication codes * Written language * Spoken language * Dress * Body language * Pictures, photographs and graphic illustrations. * Sign language, Braille. * Numbers * Computer language Communication Medium The medium is the means used to transmit the message. Media can be categorised into five headings; written, oral, visual, electronic and mass. Written media can provide a written record, can relay complex information, can be carefully thought out and mistakes can be edited. It takes time to produce and is more impersonal than speech. * Letter * Report * Memo * Press Release * Company magazine Advertising leaflet Oral media is more direct and personal, feedback is immediate. Oral media can be supported by body language. But there may be no recor d of what is said and if you say something you donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you cannot take it back. * Conversation face to face or telephone * Interview * Meeting * Presentation * Oral briefing Visual media can have an immediate impact, it can support verbal presentations. * Nonverbal * Diagrams * Charts * Photographs * Models Electronic media provides fast communication over long distance, can carry both verbal and visual information. * Video * Telephone * E-mail * InternetMass media is an important source of information; it can reach a large number of people and can be used for advertising. * Television * Radio * Press * Film Channels of Communication The channel is the air that carries sound waves between speaker and listener such as: * Television channels * Radio * Postal system * Computer networks * Courier services * Telephone Barriers to Communication Effective communication is difficult and mistakes are often made. We see this in everyday life, we complain when someone doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t respond to our messages in the way we expect, they do not understand what we really meant to say.In business, difficulties with communication can cause disruption. Good business opportunities can be lost or disastrous management decisions made. A serious breakdown in communication can put the very future of a company at risk. Communication errors can never be completely eliminated. Nevertheless, we are likely to be more successful communicators if we are aware of the factors that cause communication to fail. Some obstacles stand in the way of communication and some of these can be avoided or overcome. Physical Barriers Among these barriers are poor hearing or eyesight, illness, tiredness, or stress.Other barriers can be, distractions such as an office that is too warm or too cold, uncomfortable seating, poor telephone connection or the noise of traffic heard from outside. If a person has a medical problem this may be sorted by a visit to a doctor. If the office is too hot or too col d the thermostat may be altered and maybe closing the window would help to block out the noise. Language Barriers To convey a message correctly it should be written clearly in a language that the receiver will understand. Mistakes in spelling can harm communication.Sometimes local jargon can disrupt good communication; it may be acceptable in a specialised trade or profession. Slang or local accents may be difficult for outsiders to understand. Nonverbal Barriers Facial expression, posture and eye movement all reveal our feelings and attitudes to the receiver. When there is conflict between a verbal and non verbal signal, it is the nonverbal signal that tends to be believed. A person may say that they are outgoing and confident but this might be contradicted by nervous body language. Poor Listening Good listening is often the most important part of communication.Listening give us a better understanding of the other persons point of view, maintains friendships and helps business coll aboration. When not listening properly, we often miss an important point in a conversation. Problems with Perception Perception is how we make sense of ourselves and the world around us. We perceive the world through the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. We also have some physiological based perceptions such as sensation of pain, heat, cold etc. We have mental perceptions such as thoughts, daydreams and fantasies.The brain registers these different stimuli and organises them into shapes and patterns that we can understand. Mistakes can arise if we think other people perceive things the same way that we do ourselves. Often they donÃ¢â¬â¢t and this is a common cause of communication failure. Attitudinal Barriers Stereotyping, prejudice and unwanted attribution are among the attitudinal barriers that can do the most damage to our ability to our ability to relate effectively to others. * Stereotyping: We stereotype other people when we assume they will behave in a cert ain way just because of their appearance, role or a particular social group.We may be surprised to find that conservatively dressed people have radical views or that the big person wearing a studded jacket and driving a Harley Davidson turns out to be as gentle as a lamb. Judging by appearance gives an incomplete and often distorted picture of what a person is really like. * Prejudice: Prejudice is an attitude of hostility based on faulty generalisations, such as stereotypes. It may be directed at individuals or groups. Prejudice can be damaging to communications if a person believes that another person is inferior, subversive, threatening, not fully part of the community and so on.If we consider another person less than ourselves, we are unlikely to value what they have to say. Prejudice is often a part of ignorance but maybe better education will improve this. * Attribution:Even when we avoid stereotyping, we still make the mistake of judging people on flimsy evidence. We should n ot listen to what other people say, this can sometimes be misleading. Having an accurate picture of people is vital for effective communication, but it is something that can only be built up slowly through time, insight and regular contact. The Principles of Effective Communication As a Communicator 1.Think carefully about your objectives before communicating. What do you want to achieve? Do you want to inform, persuade, advise or consult the receiver? What kind of response do you hope to get? When you have answered questions like these then you can think about the content of the message and how you define it. 2. Put yourself in the communicatorÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes. The receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s perception may not be the same as yours. They may think differently or have different opinions. You may need to communicate with tact and sensitivity. 3. Choose the right medium or combination of media. Difficulties can arise if the wrong medium is used.If you try to describe a complicated process by spe ech alone the audience may not understand it. A combination of words and graphics may work better. 4. Organise your ideas and express them carefully. Take time to structure your ideas in a logical sequence. When choosing your words, take into consideration the receivers understanding and linguistic ability. Try to use words that the receiver will understand. Use language suitable to the communication taking place, informal language that may be used on the shop floor may not be suitable or appropriate for a business meeting. 5.Consider the context, breakdowns in communication often occur because the receiver is given information at the wrong time or place. Even important messages can be forgotten if the receiver is busy or preoccupied with something else. 6. Check for feedback, make sure your message has been received and understood. When speaking face to face look for signs of puzzlement in your listeners, be prepared to explain if necessary. Although the main responsibility for com municating a message rests with the sender, the receiver also has to listen and make sure they understand and relay the message to the right person. As a Receiver 1.Give the message your full attention. Many messages are misunderstood because the receiver is not concentrating, they are daydreaming, or there are too many distractions. 2. Interpret the message correctly. This requires effort and proper listening, if you are unsure of what is said; ask for it to be repeated. Check the meaning of unfamiliar words or references. In spoken communication listen actively and with empathy. Be alert for nuances that may subtly alter the meaning of the message. 3. Keep an open mind, you should not allow dislike of the communicator, or disagreement with their beliefs to influence your judgement.Make an objective assessment of the message no matter what your relationship with the sender. 4. Record information you are likely to forget. You should write down any information you are likely to forge t such as, telephone numbers, names, dates etc. The information should be recorded properly in a secure place, not on a scrap of paper that can get lost among other papers on a busy desk. 5. Respond appropriately to the communicator by providing feedback, following up enquiries or whatever action is necessary.
Education is an indispensable tool in nations building is a process of systematic training and instruction designed to transmit knowledge and acquisition of skill, potentials and abilities which will enable an individual to contribute efficiently to the growth and development of his society and nation. Osakwe (2006) define the meaning of education as the round development that involves individual physically, socially, morally, intellectually, and mentally. Pre-primary education can be defined as the education for children meant between the ages of 3 to 6 years (Omozeghian 1995). The National Policy on Education (2004) sees preprimary education as the education given in an educational institution to children aged 3-5 years plus prior to their entering the primary school. That is to say that early education is a special kind of education provided in an institution for children, prior to their entering the primary school. Early childhood education, in the context of formal education can be said to be Ã¢â¬Å"a formalized educational process to which children between the ages of 2 and a half through five years above are subjected to be in designated pre-school institutionsÃ¢â¬ (Mezieobi 2006). In Malaysia, Preschool educations are still in the early stage. Meaning that, in Malaysia preschool education are more focusing at the children age 5 and 6 years old. This happen due to the thinking of at the age of 2 until 4 years it is too early for the children being expose for education. Malaysia preschool education are more toward children at the age of 5 and 6 years. Also, the majority of parent in Malaysia are more preferring send their children to preschool at the age of 5 and 6 years old. 1. 2Problem Statement. Early childhood education (ECE) programs include any type of educational program that serves children in the preschool years and is designed to improve later school performance. These performances refer to the performance of the children whereby, it develops the children learning ability at the early stage. Although it seem like Preschool education is beneficial to the children, there are several negative effect of preschool education toward children. The negative effects can be seen mentioned by some scholar when the children involve in preschool education. Firstly, referring to the article current problems of Preschool education, the author Rubtsov V. V cited that Preschool reduce the children play time. This is because by reducing the play time of the children, it reduces the overall development of the child. There are two type of play time in preschool: Play for learning and free play. The important of play for the development of children at the early age has been proved long time ago. Free play helps in child character whereby it is conducive for the child at the preschool age to develop imagination, creativity and recognition to the rules that helps the child to control him or herself. The free play also develops communication skills, discussion resolution and prevention of conflicts. But the most important things that should be considered in the preschool education are children love to play. Current preschool education nowadays does not emphasize on the child play time. The education in preschool does not take play time as serious enough. With this approach, there is usually no time left for play Beside that the syllabus in preschool education system in the present time is still focusing towards the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and skills but not toward the individual character of the children itself. This can further be explaining by the preschool education subjects does not suitable for children at the early age. This happen because of the preschool education is created to give children knowledge of the future requirement rather than what they want to be. Preschool education does not include a subject that give opportunities for the children to express their hidden talent for example art and design. The preschool education should be design to develop the children ability and real talent so that they can develop it at the early stage by focusing to their talent. Thus it could be tentatively designated as narrow-pragmatic, oriented towards the needs of the system rather than the needs of the child. Beside that less of interesting syllabus also will cause the children can develop their mental and knowledge in proper way (Rubtsov V. V, Yudina E. G, 2007). Lastly, the imposed skills and competencies in the preschool education system eliminate learning motivation and, as a result, lead to school disadaptation and school neuroses. A school neurosis is the type of mental illness in thisÃ case afraid towards the environment of the school. This happen because of the program is too early imposed to the children. The children cannot accept the social and condition of the school environment and it usually be said as culture shock. In the psychiatrist form of view, this mental illness cannot be reverse once it has affected the young mind of the children. All of the mentioned problem has lead to the effort of the researcher to conduct a study of the effect of the preschool education toward character building of children (Rubtsov V. V, Yudina E.G, 2007) Beside that, there are positive effects of the preschool education whereby it can be seen when the government of Malaysia introduce the 1 Malaysia preschool education (Tabika 21 pilot project). According to the Chairman of the Development Council of Early Chilhood Education (MPPAK) under the program of 1 Malaysia Preschool Education is stressing on giving the early education to the children at the age of 2 years old. The objective of the program is to ensure all the children able to get good education. The important of early education in this project is to ensure the return of human capital investment for the country. Also stated by the chairman of the early childhood education council are the preschool educations can reduce the gap between poor the rich. 1. 4Research Questions The followings research question are being develop to achieve the research objective of this research which is the effects of preschool education toward character building of children. 1. What is the fitness level of preschool education children in Smartreader? 2. What is the syllabus for preschool education that improves the performance of the children? 3. Is preschool education system preparing the children for the primary school? (School readiness) 1. 5 Research Objectives The research objectives in the research purposely designed to identify what are the effects of preschool education toward character building of children. In this case the children of Smartreader kindergarten. 1. To identify what are the appropriate fitness level of the children of preschool education system. 2. To identify what are the best syllabus for improving the performance of children in term of curricular activities and knowledge behavior. 3. To identify whether the preschool education effecting the preparing the children for the primary school. 1. 6 Scope of study This research will be conducted in the Smartreader kindergarten in Shah Alam. The questionnaires will be distributed to 200 respondents. The respondents of the research will be the parents of the children in the Smartreader kindergarten. 1. 7Significant of Study 1. 7. 1Researcher There are several significant of this studies and the first are as the guidelines in order to establish the system of preschool education that can give impact to the children. This research can be as the references to other researcher to conduct other research toward preschool education. In Malaysia, early childhood education is still young and developing. A suitable and systematic preschool education must be according to a balance of needs of the children and the system. Scientific studies and research must be conducted in order to establish a proper system of preschool education that gives important not only to the children but also to the need of the education system in the country. 1. 7. 2Agencies. Secondly, this research can be the basic idea for the responsible agencies to develop a system that contains a syllabus that not only gives knowledge and skill but also syllabus that exposed the hidden talent and creativity of the children so that it will be useful in the future development of the children. This is because the children of today will be the next prospect of a great leader or innovator that can shape the country therefore, it is important for the policy maker to invest in the pre-school education for the future benefit of the country. 1. 7. 3Education system. The result of this research can also help to upgrade the preschool education system in term of preparing children toward facing the environment of primary school. Preschool education should be designed to help children in preparing them for the primary school. The result of this research may be use to help others in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the preschool education system in preparing children toward facing new environment and challenges in life. 1. 7. 4Parents Next, for the parents the research can be as the tool for them to identify what are the real benefits gains by their children using preschool education. Nowadays in Malaysia, preschool education is not popular among residents in the rural area such as in states of Kedah, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak. Parents are not sending their children to preschool education because the lacks of understanding the benefits of sending their children to preschool. Thus we hope that this research can open the eyes of parents in Malaysia especially in the rural area towards the important of preschool education for their children. Also this research can help them to be aware about the latest education that can shape the future of their children. 1. 7. 5Qualification of Teachers. Lastly, we hope can gives the benefits of identifying a better method of teaching in preschool education. This is because there are many impacts of early childhood education towards children and at the early stages, what children learn at the time will determine what types of people they will be in the future. Thus, the teacher must have the right qualification and cannot be easily pick to teach the fragile mind of the children. This research hopes to be as the references in choosing the best quality teachers suitable for the needs of the children nowadays. 1. 8Definition of Key term 1. 8. 1Definition of preschool. Preschool education can be defined as an early chilhood education is the education given to the children below the compulsory school age consists of physical care and edducation (Sheila, 2006). Mean that preschool education only involve children at the age of 2 untill 6 years old. 1. 8. 2Definition of Knowledge The definition of knowledge has transformed over such history, from a general phenomenon, to one that is specialized and actionable as the behaviorists pointed out, in evidence Ã¢â¬Å"outside the person, in society and economy, or in the advancement of knowledge itselfÃ¢â¬ (Drucker, 1993, p. 45-6). 1. 8. 3Definition of Preparation to School. Preparation or rediness to school can be define by the National Center for Educational Statistics showed that teachers identified Ã¢â¬Å"readyÃ¢â¬ children as those who are physically healthy, well-rested and well-fed; able to communicate needs, wants and thoughts verbally; and curious and enthusiastic in approaching new activities. 1. 8. 4Definition of physical Physical education can be define by Merriam Webster as the instruction in the development and care of the body ranging from simple calisthenics exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics, and the performance and management of athletic games. A good condition of physical is very important to make sure children will be able to build a good character for them self. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0Introduction In this chapter, the researcher will discuss about the past research that have been done about the three variables which is Knowledge, Physical and School readiness towards the dependent variables which is the character building of children. In this section also, we will be discussing about the historical background of the Preschool education and lastly the conceptual framework of the studies. 2. 1History of Pre-school Education in Malaysia. The Preschool education also known as Early chilhood education is the education given to the children below the compulsory school age consists of physical care and edducation (Sheila, 2006). Early childhood care and education in Malaysia existed before the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The education is provided back then by mostly from the religious bodies or non governmental organizations. Before this, the private kindergarten was not being established yet. In the year 1972, Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) drafted the Kaedah Ã¢â¬â Kaedah Guru/ Kaedah- Kaedah Kindergarten dan Sekolah Asuhan (Pendaftaran) 1972 Warta Kerajaan P. U. (A) 414 which provided the procedures to be followed regarding the registration of kindergarten, teachers and its board of governors. This was the first legal document concerning the registration of early childhood education (Curriculum Development Centre, Malaysia, 2007). In the year 1971, the first preschool known commonly in Malaysia as the Tabika KEMAS started by the Ministry of Rural and Regional Development in accordance to the education act formulated by them and expanded to be the biggest provider of preschool education in the country today. This is followed by the Department of National Integration and Unity that started its first preschool that being known as the PERPADUAN preschools (Curriculum Development Centre, Malaysia, 2007). Later in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s preschools in Malaysia were established and managed by various government agencies such as KEMAS, FELDA, RISDA, Department of National Unity, Religious bodies, Police and armies (Cawangan pendidikan/ Angkatan Bersenjata dan Polis), and private sectors. There was various program were offered, different materials used, teachers qualification differs too (PPK & BPPDP, 1986). The sense of incomplete felt by the various agencies and the urges the help from the MOE for assistance and guidance. The MOE foresaw the need to standardized and regulate preschool education in Malaysia. Also at the time, the MOE was pioneering two major preschool projects which is the Projek Pendidikan Imbuhan managed by Curriculum Development Centre with the help of Yayasan Bernard Van Leer, a Dutch body. The other project is the Projek Kajian Pendidikan Prasekolah managed by Education Planning and Research Division with assistance from UNICEF. The experiences gained by the both project lead to the existence of formulation of the 1986 Preschool Guidebook (Buku Panduan Prasekolah Malaysia 1986), this is the first formalized curriculum document of early childhood education in Malaysia that aim to provide guidance and assist coordination between kindergarten and enhance the standard of Malaysia Preschool education development at that time (PPK & BPPPP, 1986). Preschool was not regarded officially as part of the bigger system of national education system until 1996. Through the Ã¢â¬Å"National Education Act 1996Ã¢â¬ (Akta Pendidikan Kebangsaan 1996- Akta 550, 2005), Preschool education is finally officially declared as part of the school system. All preschools/kindergarten regardless of public or private are required to implement the National Preschool Curriculum formulated through the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education beginning January, 2003. In addition to the National Preschool Curriculum, any private that wanted to implement other curriculum must seek the permission of the MOE and the medium of instruction used in any registered preschool can be the National language or any other language but the National language must be taught as a subject. A minimum requirement of 10 children age 4-6 years old has been set by Ministry of education for starting the class in public school. The preschool classes in MOE are still expanding and it is targeted that in the near future, all the National Primary School will have their own preschool classes (Curriculum Development Centre, Malaysia, 2007). 2. 2Knowledge Knowledge is to cope with someone or something unknown, which can be information, facts, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. The definition of knowledge has transformed over such history, from a general phenomenon, to one that is specialized and actionable as the behaviorists pointed out, in evidence Ã¢â¬Å"outside the person, in society and economy, or in the advancement of knowledge itselfÃ¢â¬ (Drucker, 1993, p. 45-6). According to a recent study conducted by (Loeb, Bridges, Bossok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2005) comparing the children who received only parental care, low-income children who participated in a non-Head Start, and center-based Early Childhood Education program experienced the greatest gains in their early reading and math skills. Thus, it can be explain that children which attended preschool performed significantly better in both reading and math skill during their kindergarden year compared to children cared by only their parents before kindergarden. It can be assume that preschool education thus proven to significantly increase the knowledge of the children in term of math and reading skill of the children. In term of the character building of the children, the preschool education improved the knowledge of the children by significantly improved the children reading skill and children ability to understand the subject taught in the preschool esspecially math. Studies shown that young children has the capacity of being the change agent in now and the future. This is because early learning is important to shape the attitudes, knowledge and actions. It stated that the early learning is the foundation for the child thinking, being, knowing and and acting are becoming hard wired and relates to the children. The early learning also shown the effect of creating relationship with the environment and others issues that can promotes the introduction of environmental issues to the children in the early age for better practises in the future (Chawla, 1998; Davis and Gibson, 2006; Wells and Lekies, 2006). Another scholar suggested that the preschool education is the medium to discover the ability of the children at the early age, this is because the preschool education was purposely designed to improve the knowledge of the children at the early age (Roth and McGinn, 1998). The researcher stated that the preschool education improve the character building of the children by improving the knowledge and the design of the preschool education is at the first time is purpose for the improvement of the child development and character building. Marcon (2002) argues that there is a relationship between preschool education and success later in school system. The results of the research studies shows preschool education system have positive long term effects that is based on a statistical unit of analysis and include knowledge such as arimathic, reading, spelling, health citizenship and science. Thus it can be said that the preschool education have realtionship with the development of the children itself. This shown in the study conducted by Marcon that significantly shows the increase in child ability for subject taught in the school. One of the most important roles of early childhood education for a sustainable society appears to be the necessity to take the childÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. This seems to be fundamental in order to develop citizens who have essential knowledge and are capable of making decisions and choices that will have an effect on the environment (Roth and McGinn, 1998). Acoording to (Barnett, 1998) Preschool education system can effects in knowledge be more easily taught and mastered in a brief time. This shows that preschool education system lead to a more knowledgeable in a short time period. Myers (2000) offer a simple typology for examining early childhood programs which is early education promotes the learning process of acquiring knowledge, skills, habits and values and is often narrowly interpreted as uniquely preparing children for primary school. 2. 2Preparation for School. What is Readiness: TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ and ParentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Definitions, Studies have examined the definition of readiness among different stakeholders in the kindergarten transition process. A national survey of kindergarten teachers conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics showed that teachers identified Ã¢â¬Å"readyÃ¢â¬ children as those who are physically healthy, well-rested and well-fed; able to communicate needs, wants and thoughts verbally; and curious and enthusiastic in approaching new activities. Parents, in contrast, typically define readiness in terms of academic abilities, such as the ability to count or know the alphabet. A study conducted by the National Center for Early Development and Learning appraises readiness by examining teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ judgments on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s school transition, showing that almost half of children entering school experienced some difficulty with the transition to kindergarten. Problems following directions were the most commonly cited problem among kindergarten teachers. Participation in Early Childhood Education programs does increase childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in primary school. One report suggests that participation in ECCE ( Early Child Care Education ) programs can reduce dropping out of primary schools by 15 to 20 per cent (South Asia Education Sector, The World Bank, 2003). It shows that the preschool education can increase the school readiness to the children by increasing the children participation in the school program. The school readiness can be proven to have a significant relationship with preschool education based on the report by South Asia Education Sector, The World Bank, 2003, that reduces the school drop out to a very positive rate. Another studies conducted by Lee, Brooks-Gunn and Schnur (1988) had found a significant different between the children which receive the preschool education and children which not receive the preschool education in term of school readiness. The studies compared 969 children who had experienced three different preschool environment. Those children which not received preschool education are showing the disabbilities in learning at the first grades in school. Comparing to those children which received preschool education, they gains large measures of social and cognitive functioning compared to those whose not. This show that preschool education clearly increase the school readiness in the child character building. Beside that readiness to school will look into the acceptence of the children toward the enviroment of the primary school. Means that the children who enter the preschool will more easily accept the environment of school when enter primary school. Iit is because during preschool they wil learn how to live in the school enviroment, how to be friendly, how to live as a student at school. So it show that preschool can help develop the ability of blending in the environment of the school. 2. 3Physical Physical education can be define by Merriam Webster as the instruction in the development and care of the body ranging from simple calisthenics exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics, and the performance and management of athletic games. In the aspect of physical, preschool will help the children in learn how to build the good physical. Means that when the child has entered preschool they will learn the way how they can get a good physical condition. Example like preschool will teach them how to eat and choose healthy food, how liveÃ in good health, how to care their self, exercise and other. So from that it will make child who entered preschool will different from the children are not enter to preschool. It is because when the children are not enter preschool and only live at home they will not learn any aspect of physical. Mean that at home they only do the activities or eat base on their thinking only. Beside that, the good condition of child physical is so important because if they have a good physical it will lead to the good character building. So it shows that preschool will give a positive impact to the children in order to they get a good physical condition. Preschool education aim at strengthening the basic skills such as socialization process and personality development. One of the general objectives of pre-school education is to enable the children to develop physically and practice good health and safety measures (Education Aspiration and Preschool Education Goal). Increase improvements in studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance and cognitive ability have significant relationship with the amount of time spent in physical education. Children who spent time in physical education additionally in place of a classroom activity performed no worse academically than students not enrolled in physical education (Opinion Research Corporation International of Princeton, 2003). It mean that, when the children are enter in preschool they will have a specific play time every day that has purpose for the development of physical. In time of play time, it will help children to get a good condition a better physical in term of health, body, thinking and other. So it shows that preschool is one of the mechanisms for child to build the good of character building in aspect of physical. Play time that provide and prepare by preschool will avoid from child have problem in build the physical for a future. What should be the right amount of physical activities need in preschool education? According to the National organizations including the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, NASPE, the National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Institute of 3 Medicine recommend 150 minutes of physical education each week forÃ children in elementary school and 225 minutes per week for middle school and high school. Vigorous physical activity should be spent at least 50 percent of physical education class, this is supported by the American cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Heart Association that will continue to recommend as they revised and update with the evolving sciences. So in the daily of the child they need spend a certain hour or minute in doing a physical activities. 2. 4 Character Building of Children. The early period of childhood has been proven the most crucial stage for the child developments. It will be long lasting and permanent throughout the entire life of the children. From birth to age 8 year old, a child gradually mastered the complex level of thinking, feeling, and interacting with people and the world around him (Evans et al. 2000). A childÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with the environment will develop the critical brain connections that will be the pathways for intellectual, emotional, physical, immunological, and social functions. The preschool can be the basics to the children to develop their ability toward improving knowledge, physical and the school readiness as all of the said characteristics being affect by the interactions of the child towards his or her environment. The first two years of the child will develop the ability to walk, manual dexterity and other motor ability. From the age of two to five, a child develops language skills, fundamental social skills, and the base for Ã¢â¬Å"learning to learnÃ¢â¬ that translates into school readiness. Character and personality are largely formed, and major social and moral values are transmitted. Lastly from ages six through eight, a child consolidates earlier learning also begins to learn conceptually and manipulate ideas, and enters the Ã¢â¬Å"age of reasonÃ¢â¬ (Eming Young 1996; Evans et al. 2000). 2. 5Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework in this reasearch will identifies the two type of variables which is the independent variables and the dependent variables. These variables is the important factor that will be examined and identified by the reasearcher in term of its relations in this reasearch. The independent variables consist of three which is the first is knowlegde. Knowledge is the skills aquired through experience or education in life. The knowledge variables has an important relations with the character building of the children. Through preschool education, the knowledge of the children increase and it has been proven important in the first year of the child development. Past reasearch has proven that a child knowledge improve during early chilhood education or preschool education. Thus there is a significant relations between the knowledge and the character building of the children. The second variables in this reasearch is the preparation for standard one or school readiness. The school readiness in this reasearch identifies as the enthusiasm and curious in approching new activities. As referring to the lierature review, the school readiness variables have the realtions with the character building of the children. This is because the preschool education promotes the child to be social active in the society. This also develop the ability to cope and learn with new environmment for the children. Thus, it will be permanently implant in the mind of the children the ability to adapt with new environment esspecially the primary school. The last independent variables is the physical of the children. Physical can be define as the development and care of the body. In this reasearch, the reasearcher has found that there is a realtionship of physical towards the character building of the children. This can be further explain due to the preschool education that have the session of playing. This increase the mental and fitness of the children as the children in the early ages have the orientation to play. Thus, indirectly increase the experience of the children also the physical ability of the children itself. The three variables can further be demonstrate by the diagram below. Diagram 1 Independent Variables Dependent Variables 2. 6Hyphoteses H1 = There is a significant realtionship between knowledge and the character building of the children in Preschool education. H2 = There is a significant relationship between school readiness and the character building of the children in Preschool education. H3 = There is a significant relationship between physical and the character building of the children in Preschool education. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1Introduction. Research methodology is section of a report explains the procedures followed in gathering the data necessary for the analysis to meet the research objectives. Research method is the blue print of the study (Abdulllah, 2009). To be noticeable, the theme of this study is about social research. This research is to study on the relationship between the effectiveness of preschool and character building of children. Its will look how preschool will effect character building of children in term of knowledge, physical and readiness to school. 3. 2Research design. Research design will discuss the research methodology used in the study. It will briefly explain the framework of the research followed by the research design, unit of analysis, sampling size, sampling technique, measurement, data collection and data analysis. The nature research that we use is quantitative research. It set out to seek accurate and adequate description or characteristic of the research. Different types of research design are likely to generate very different kinds of data. The nature of data can be classified into two types that are primary data and secondary data. Primary data means the data that are originated by researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problems at hand. In other word primary data is a raw data and information that researcher will get. It involves specific method such as survey, interview, observation and questionnaire. In our research we use questionnaire as our primary data collection. The result of the questionnaire is a raw information and first hand information to the researcher. Secondary data is data that already have been collected for others purposes than the problem at hand. This data can be located quickly at various sources such.