Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Water Quality Management
Question: Write a report on the topic water quality management. Answer: Abstract The report is prepared on the topic water quality management and it consists information on WSUD technologies and how it works to effect storm water quality. There are various technologies which can be used for water management like permeable pavement, constructed wetland, green roof and bio filtration system etc. hence, a particular technology will be selected from the above mentioned and a review would be given on the same. Report also consists of some new innovations which can be made for enhancing water quality management resources. Introduction WSUD is known to be called as water-sensitive urban design. It is land planning and designing technically through an engineering approach which helps the urban water cycle along with the groundwater, storm water, wastewater and water supply management to be moulded in an urban design for minimising degradation of environment. It also helps in improving recreational and aesthetic appeal of water cycle. This process is differently known as low impact development (LID) in the United states and the term WSUD is known in Australia and the middle east region. Whereas, in United Kingdom, it is known as SUDS i.e. sustainable urban drainage system (Vymazal, 2010). The best use of technology is made in storm water quality treatment and for the selection is a treatment in the same, there is a system of process which has to be followed for choosing an appropriate treatment. This process consists of knowing treatments approaches, treatment training, then hybrid the systems, researching the treatments (Vymazal, 2010). It is important to understand nature of catchment, then determining suitable measures for treatment, guessing optimal measures, know who and how will do the process and then developing detailed design of storm water system (Rawstrone, 2009). From the above types of treatments mentioned in the abstract, one is green roofs. This process is very much helpful for controlling and managing the storm water. Green roofs are also known as vegetated covers on the roof. They can be named as nature roofs, living roofs or the eco roofs. In this process, a thin layer of different plants is grown on the top of the roof (Rawstrone, 2009). This type of planting does not consist of a group of plants potted in pots. It is a kind of conventional roof extended which consists of installation of layers of plants, membranes and substrates. This technology is no new to the world. Even in history, green roofs were used widely hundreds of years ago. This helped keeping the house in a normal temperature. In the modern era, people started making green roofs popular as they help in reducing water wastage and preventing storm water from running off the roofs adding an additional space for greenery (Brodie, 2012). (www.waterqualitymanagement.com) Role of Wsud in Storm Water Control Storm water control and management is not only a necessity but also an ethical support by the humans to the nature. Water is an important resource to us and it must be given the deserved importance by one and all. Hence, the storm water shouldnt get wasted. Green roofs are an initiative taken, by which the water coming from rains and storms is used for growth of plants and increasing greenery. This not only saves water but also helps in increasing plantation in the environment (Vymazal, 2010). Some more roles played by WSUD- Manages catchments which maintains and improves resources of water. It helps in managing and avoiding risk to human life and their property. It also ensures an efficient and good use of the water. This way the economical, ethical, cultural and social values are maintained. Green Roof Technolohy- A Help (How?) Green roofs are helpful- It is an easy, effective way of beautifying environment. These help in contributing to the landfilling diversion. With the roofs, the water gets stored and then taken by plants and then returned to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. These roofs moderate temperature and act as natural air filter. Manages the storm water from running off. The temperature of cities can be kept moderated through green roofs at the time of extensive summers and winters. Reduce extensive dust in the atmosphere. The plants help by capturing and atmospheric depositions and pollutants. It also filters noxious and harmful gases (Gardiner and Hardy, 2005). Hence, we come to an answer that green roofs are an extremely useful way of WSUD in the cities and countries to manage storm waters and treat it the right way naturally (Ahammed, Hewa, and Argue, 2012). It involves less cost and uses low maintenance by the humans for working properly for several years. Figure 1 (www.mainsoneco.com) Other Methods Which Come Under Wsud- Permeable pavement- this method consists of a range of materials and different techniques which are sustainable, made for permeable pavements. These are either with a base or a subbase which allows storm water to move through surface. It reduces run off, traps the suspension of solids and filters the pollutants in water. Constructed wetland- this is an artificial wetland, also known as CW. It is created for treating the discharge from wastewater in industries and the storm water run-off. Bio filtration system- it is a pollution controlling system made to save aquaculture through the bio filters created. The dissolved substances and the colloidal pollutants are generally very harmful for the environment and the people (Ahammed, Hewa, and Argue, 2012). These are needed to be removed from the storm water in the ponds and even normal households. Hence, the WSUD treatments help in removing these harmful pollutants from the storm water and wastewater. The harmful pollutants which are removed through treatment are- TSS, Tot-P, Tot-N, COD, BOD, pathogens and heavy metals (Vymazal, 2010). Improvements Which can be Made WSUD is in itself a very innovative and effective technology for the treatment of water. Especially the storm waters can be beautifully, without wasting or harming any natural resource gets treated by green roof and pavement method (Beecham and Chowdhury, 2012). Except this, the engineers and technicians can work on making processes easier and of lesser cost while setting up. In this case, many houses will welcome the methods. Government can work and advertise to make the strategies more popular (Vymazal, 2010). By taking up ways to reduce renewal and maintenance cost can also help (Beecham and Chowdhury, 2012). Some ways like collecting storm water and then treating it for getting pure water of usage can also be given thought as new innovations. (www.greenroofs.org) Summary At the end, we come to know that WSUD is known as water sensitive urban design. It is a way of land planning and designing a base or set up by which the urban water is treated (Vymazal, 2010). Storm water needs a good treatment plant as much of its volume is wasted through run off. Hence, WSUD provides a base for storm water treatment also. There are several ways under WSUD by which management of storm water can be done but as discussed in the report, green roofing is a beautiful and successful way by which run off of water can be reduced and used for another good (Ahammed, Hewa, and Argue, 2012). Green roof uses a technology of growing plants on the roof of a house. These are not potted but layered beautifully and technically to absorb water for their growth and allow precipitation. It also helps in cleaning pollutants, control dust and maintaining moderate temperature (Gardiner and Hardy, 2005). Hence, WSUD techniques must be motivated by the government as well as common public to treat water carefully and allow nature and environment to flourish as well. References 3M introduces advanced bio filters(2011)Filtration + Separation, 48(6), p. 13. doi: 10.1016/s0015-1882(11)70252-x. Ahammed, F., Hewa, G.A. and Argue, J.R. (2012) Applying multi-criteria decision analysis to select WSUD and LID technologies,Water Science Technology: Water Supply, 12(6), p. 844. doi: 10.2166/ws.2012.060. Beecham, S. and Chowdhury, R. (2012) Effects of changing rainfall patterns on WSUD in Australia,Proceedings of the ICE - Water Management, 165(5), pp. 285298. doi: 10.1680/wama.10.00115. Brodie, I. (2012) Stormwater harvesting and WSUD frequent flow management: A compatibility analysis,Water Science Technology, 66(3), p. 612. doi: 10.2166/wst.2012.214. Coombes, P.J., Argue, J.R. and Kuczera, G. (2000) Figtree place: A case study in water sensitive urban development (WSUD),Urban Water, 1(4), pp. 335343. doi: 10.1016/s1462-0758(00)00027-3. Gardiner, A. and Hardy, M. (2005) Beyond demonstration mode: The application of WSUD in Australia,Australian Planner, 42(4), pp. 1621. doi: 10.1080/07293682.2005.9982445. Lin, W., Ryu, S. and Cho, Y.-H. (2014) A case study of flow characteristics of permeable pavements by time and space model,Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 41(7), pp. 660666. doi: 10.1139/cjce-2013-0165. Rawstrone, A. (2009) Enabling environments: Roof garden - green oasis,Nursery World, 2009(8). doi: 10.12968/nuwa.2009.4.8.1093260. Vymazal, J. (2010) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment,Water, 2(3), pp. 530549. doi: 10.3390/w2030530.